Saturday, April 30, 2016

A Short Bibliography on Protectionism and Industrial Policy

The issue of protectionism – and the related issue of industrial policy – is back on the political agenda, mainly because of the current US election season.

Some very good books and articles relevant here are as follows:
Amsden, Alice. 1989. Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. Oxford University Press, New York.

Amsden, Alice. 1990. “East Asia’s Challenge – to Standard Economics,” American Prospect 2 (Summer): 71–77.

Bairoch, Paul. 1993. Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. Harvester Wheatsheaf, New York and London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2002. Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. Anthem Press, London.

Chang, Ha-Joon (ed.). 2003. Rethinking Development Economics. Anthem Press, London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2005. The East Asian Development Experience: The Miracle, the Crisis and the Future. Zed, London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2008. Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies, and the Threat to the Developing World. Random House Business, London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2011. 23 Things They Don’t Tell You about Capitalism. Bloomsbury Press, New York and London.

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2014. Economics: The User’s Guide. Bloomsbury Press, New York, NY.

Reinert, Erik S. 2007. How Rich Countries Got Rich, and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor. Carroll & Graf, New York.

Prestowitz, Clyde V. 2005. “China as No. 1,” American Prospect, February 21
http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=china_as_no_1

Prestowitz, Clyde V. 2015. “Our Incoherent China Policy,” American Prospect Fall
http://prospect.org/article/our-incoherent-china-policy-fall-preview

Prestowitz, C. V. 2010. The Betrayal of American Prosperity: Free Market Delusions, America’s Decline, and How we Must Compete in the Post-Dollar Era, Free Press, New York and London.

Galbraith, J. K. 2008. The Predator State: How Conservatives Abandoned the Free Market and Why Liberals Should Too. Free Press, New York.
Some interesting articles on the role of infant industry protectionism in the US in the early 19th century are as follows:
Bils, Mark. 1984. “Tariff Protection and Production in the Early U.S. Cotton Textile Industry,” The Journal of Economic History 44.4: 1033–1045.

Temin, Peter. 1988. “Product Quality and Vertical Integration in the Early Cotton Textile Industry,” The Journal of Economic History 48.4: 891–907.

Harley, C. K. 1992. “The Antebellum American Tariff: Food Exports and Manufacturing,” Explorations in Economic History 29: 375–400.

Irwin, Douglas A. and Peter Temin. 2001. “The Antebellum Tariff on Cotton Textiles Revisited,” Journal of Economic History 61: 777–805.

Want to Reduce Anti-Semitism in Europe?

At the moment the British Labour party is in the news with claims of anti-Semitism in its ranks. On the one hand, I don’t doubt that the modern Labour party has certain people in it like Livingstone or former members like the odious George Galloway who have a disgraceful and disgusting relationship with Islamists, and who have a one-sided and unfair bias against Israel in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

But, despite all the hysteria, this is such an overblown issue. If one really wants to significantly reduce anti-Semitism in Europe, isn’t the solution obvious? Isn’t it to stop mass immigration of people amongst whom there are disproportionate numbers who hold viciously anti-Semitic views?

It’s a shame when the only people (apparently) willing to speak about this are the neoconservative right, since it is an issue that ought to concern any rational left-wing, secular people.



I don’t like Douglas Murray (especially given his pro-austerity nonsense), but here he has a point.

The really major problem with anti-Semitism in Europe, I am afraid, comes not from the British Labour party, but from within the community that Douglas Murray is speaking about here, which also has a serious problem with misogyny, homophobia, and religious extremism.

Having said that, I suppose I will now infuriate people on the other side, for it also seems to me that Ken Livingstone is being treated unfairly.

Livingstone said “when Hitler won his election in 1932, his policy then was that Jews should be moved to Israel. He was supporting Zionism – this before he went mad and ended up killing six million Jews.” Now there are problems with that statement, and with a lot of Livingstone’s politics, but the fact is that it is not far from the truth. Once we note that Israel didn’t exist in 1932 (a minor error Livingstone makes), and that Hitler personally rejected Zionism and the idea of an independent Jewish state per se (Livingstone’s serious mistakes, if he really meant to say this), and the obvious point that Kristallnacht and the sending of Jews to concentration camps in large numbers after that pogrom of November 1938 were blatant evidence of the violent anti-Semitism in 1930s Germany even before the war (which I assume Livingstone admits), the rest is accurate.

Has everybody forgotten the Haavara Agreement of 25 August, 1933?

This agreement took the following form:
“The Haavara Agreement (Hebrew: הסכם העברה Translit.: heskem haavara Translated: ‘transfer agreement’) was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933. The agreement was finalized after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany, the Anglo-Palestine Bank (under the directive of the Jewish Agency) and the economic authorities of Nazi Germany. The agreement was designed to help facilitate the emigration of German Jews to Palestine. While it helped Jews emigrate, it forced them to temporarily give up possessions to Germany before departing. Those possessions could later be re-obtained by transferring them to Palestine as German export goods. The agreement was controversial at the time, and was criticised by many Jewish leaders both within the Zionist movement (such as the Revisionist Zionist leader Vladimir Jabotinsky) and outside it.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haavara_Agreement
The Transfer Agreement incentivised German Jewish emigration to Palestine by allowing those emigrating to transfer £1,000 (or about 15,000 Reichsmark), but in terms of export goods from Germany, while at the same time they only paid a smaller “flight tax” than other emigrants (essentially this means that the Nazis robbed the emigrants to Palestine of their property to a lesser degree than other emigrants bound for different countries).

Of course, none of this means that the Zionist organisations approved of Nazi Germany, nor that the Nazis or Hitler personally approved of Zionism. Nor that the Nazis were not guilty of vehement and pathological anti-Semitism. If anything, the Zionist organisations by the Transfer Agreement helped to save some 60,000 German Jews who emigrated, so in that respect they acted to save lives.

Nevertheless, amongst the Nazis, there was a bizarre and schizophrenic attitude to Zionism, and it was seen, at the very least, as useful in aiding the Nazi policy of expulsion of the Jews. If Livingstone had only said this and qualified his statements properly, none of this would have been false.

A good book on this is Francis R. Nicosia’s The Third Reich and the Palestine Question (I. B. Tauris, London, 1986). Nicosia, in addition to using evidence available on the public record, actually used Nazi party archives and German Foreign Ministry archives, and he shows that in the 1930s the Nazis – although nobody denies their vicious and murderous anti-Semitism – regarded the Zionist movement as a politically useful tool because it helped to encourage the 1930s Nazi policy of forced emigration of Jews from Germany and even provided a suitable destination, namely, the historic home in Palestine.

But, to return to the original issue, if Europe wants to reduce and fight the disease of anti-Semitism, then why import more and more anti-Semites? It’s a simple question.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Nicosia, Francis R. 1986. The Third Reich and the Palestine Question. I. B. Tauris, London.

Nicosia, Francis R. 2008. Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Friday, April 29, 2016

The Golden Age of Capitalism in France

A brief but serviceable enough overview:
“In the immediate post-war years France was in poor shape; wages remained at around half prewar levels, the winter of 1946–1947 did extensive damage to crops, leading to a reduction in the bread ration, hunger and disease remained rife and the black market continued to flourish. Germany was in an even worse position, but after 1948 things began to improve dramatically with the introduction of Marshall Aid—large scale American financial assistance given to help rebuild European economies and infrastructure. This laid the foundations of a meticulously planned program of investments in energy, transport and heavy industry, overseen by the government of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou.

In the context of a population boom unseen in France since the 18th century, the government intervened heavily in the economy, using dirigisme—a unique combination of free-market and state-directed economy—with indicative five-year plans as its main tool. This brought about a rapid transformation and expansion of the French economy.

High-profile projects, mostly but not always financially successful, were launched: the extension of Marseille's harbour (soon ranking third in Europe and first in the Mediterranean); the promotion of the Caravelle passenger jetliner (a predecessor of Airbus); the decision to start building the supersonic Franco-British Concorde airliner in Toulouse; the expansion of the French auto industry with state-owned Renault at its centre; and the building of the first motorways between Paris and the provinces.

Aided by these projects, the French economy recorded growth rates unrivalled since the 19th century. In 1964, for the first time in nearly 100 years France’s GDP overtook that of the United Kingdom. This period is still remembered in France with some nostalgia as the peak of the Trente Glorieuses (‘Thirty Glorious Years’ of economic growth between 1945 and 1974).

In 1967, de Gaulle decreed a law that obliged all firms over certain sizes to distribute a small portion of their profits to their employees. By 1974, as a result of this measure, French employees received an average of 700 francs per head, equivalent to 3.2% of their salary.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Gaulle#.22Thirty_glorious_years.22
One of the most important French political leaders who oversaw that was Charles de Gaulle, President of the French Republic from 8 January 1959 to 28 April 1969, who despite being conservative was clearly no free market fanatic, and this can be seen in de Gaulle’s memoirs, where he quite unashamedly and proudly defended that French dirigisme of the post-WWII years:
“For us, then, the task of the state was not to force the nation under a yoke, but to guide its progress. However, though freedom remained an essential lever in economic action, this action was nonetheless collective, since it directly controlled the nation’s destiny, and it continually involved social relations. It thus required an impetus, a harmonizing influence, a set of rules, which could only emanate from the state. In short, what was needed was State direction (dirigisme). I myself was resolved on it; and this was one of the reasons why I had wanted the Republic's institutions to be such that the government’s means matched its responsibilities.

In practical terms, what it primarily amounted to was drawing up a national plan, in other words deciding on the goals, the priorities, the rates of growth and the conditions that had to be observed by the national economy, and determining the fields of development in which the state must intervene, along with laws and budgets. It is within this framework that the state increases or reduces taxation, eases or restricts credit, regulates customs duties; that it develops the national infrastructure – roads, railways, waterways, harbors, airports, communications, new cities, housing, etc.; harnesses the sources of energy – electricity, gas, coal, oil, atomic power; initiates research in the public sector and fosters it in the private; that it encourages the rational distribution of economic activity over the whole country; and by means of social security, education, and vocational training, facilitates the changes of employment forced upon many Frenchmen by modernization. In order that our country’s structures should be remolded and its appearance rejuvenated, my government, fortified by the newfound stability of the state, was to engage in manifold and vigorous interventions.” (Gaulle 1971: 150–151).
They don’t (as far as I know) make sensible and pragmatic politicians like that in France any more – or, for that matter, in other Western countries in our foolish neoliberal era.

But times can change radically, just as they did between the early 1930s and the 1940s, and hopefully they can change again.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Gaulle, Charles de. 1971. Memoirs of Hope: Renewal and Endeavour (trans. Terence Kilmartin). Simon and Schuster, New York.

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

Keynes on Communism

Keynes visited the Soviet Union in the summer of 1925. He evidently tried hard to take a fair-minded view of Soviet Communism to please other people on the left, but just couldn’t do it.

From his essay “A Short View of Russia” (1925):
“Like other new religions, Leninism derives its power not from the multitude but from a small minority of enthusiastic converts whose zeal and intolerance make each one the equal in strength of a hundred indifferentists. .... Like other new religions, it persecutes without justice or pity those who actively resist it. Like other new religions, it is unscrupulous. Like other new religions, it is filled with missionary ardour and ecumenical ambitions. ....

I sympathise with those who seek for something good in Soviet Russia.

But when we come to the actual thing what is one to say? For me, brought up in a free air undarkened by the horrors of religion, with nothing to be afraid of, Red Russia holds too much which is detestable. Comfort and habits let us be ready to forgo, but I am not ready for a creed which does not care how much it destroys the liberty and security of daily life, which uses deliberately the weapons of persecution, destruction, and international strife. How can I admire a policy which finds a characteristic expression in spending millions to suborn spies in every family and group at home, and to stir up trouble abroad? Perhaps this is no worse and has more purpose than the greedy, warlike, and imperialist propensities of other Governments; but it must be far better than these to shift me out of my rut. How can I accept a [sc. communist] doctrine which sets up as its bible, above and beyond criticism, an obsolete economic textbook which I know to be not only scientifically erroneous but without interest or application for the modern world? How can I adopt a creed which, preferring the mud to the fish, exalts the boorish proletariat above the bourgeois and the intelligentsia who, with whatever faults, are the quality in life and surely carry the seeds of all human advancement? Even if we need a religion, how can we find it in the turbid rubbish of the Red bookshops? It is hard for an educated, decent, intelligent son of Western Europe to find his ideals here, unless he has first suffered some strange and horrid process of conversion which has changed all his values.”
http://www.gutenberg.ca/ebooks/keynes-essaysinpersuasion/keynes-essaysinpersuasion-00-h.html
Keynes’ judgement on Marx’s economics is especially interesting:
“How can I accept a [sc. communist] doctrine which sets up as its bible, above and beyond criticism, an obsolete economic textbook which I know to be not only scientifically erroneous but without interest or application for the modern world?”
And we can easily list these erroneous and obsolete doctrines as they exist in volume 1 of Capital:
(1) the size of the working class eventually stabilised and society was swelled by a growing and prosperous middle class and social mobility, contrary to Marx’s prediction of all people – except a small class of capitalists – being reduced to proletarians. Unemployment rates in capitalism are simply a cyclical result of the business cycle: even in the 19th century, unemployment rates did not grow and grow in the long run, as Marx’s theory predicts, but normally simply moved around a point somewhat above full employment, as John Maynard Keynes pointed out:
“our actual experience … [sc. is] that we oscillate, avoiding the gravest extremes of fluctuation in employment and in prices in both directions, round an intermediate position appreciably below full employment and appreciably above the minimum employment a decline below which would endanger life.”
Keynes, J. M. 1936. General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money , Chapter 18.
https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/economics/keynes/general-theory/ch18.htm
(3) Marx thought that the large industrial reserve army is a necessary consequence and necessary condition of capitalism, but this is incorrect. In the Keynesian era of full employment, where there was very low unemployment and indeed labour scarcity in the advanced capitalist world, capitalism continued and thrived – indeed we now call it the “Golden Age” of capitalism.

(4) the long-run tendency of capitalism, even in the 19th century, was to massively increase the real wage, which has soared above subsistence level, even for workers (see here and here), contrary to Marx’s theory that the tendency of capitalism is to keep the real wage at a subsistence level (which is the value of the maintenance and reproduction of labour-power).

(5) the growing real wage and rising disposable income even of workers in capitalism also allowed a massive capacity for production of new commodities and new opportunities for employment (e.g., especially in services and middle class employment), which in turn has helped to overcome technological unemployment for most of the history of capitalism, contrary to Marx’s prediction of subsistence wages and increasing technological unemployment. Even if we do experience mass technological unemployment this century, it need not lead to disaster, with demand-management, a guaranteed income and government employment programs.

(6) Marx’s claim that machines, generally speaking, are an unmitigated evil in capitalism whose primary effect to increase the intensity and speed of work by labourers is an outrageous falsehood – a perversion of history and reality. In reality, machines have, generally speaking, tended to decrease the intensity, difficulty and monotony of human labour and often reduced to human labour to lighter work of visual inspection and overseeing of machine work, not physical labour. On this, see here and here. Advanced capitalist nations have also virtually eliminated child labour as well, and in our time have tended to pay women the same hourly wage for the same type of work as men.

(7) highly developed and advanced Western capitalist states like Britain and the US proved the most resistant to communism and Marxism (contrary to Marx’s theory), and when communist revolutions broke out it was in backward Russia and China.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Keynes, J. M. 1933 [1925]. “A Short View of Russia,” in John Maynard Keynes, Essays in Persuasion. Macmillan, London. 297–311.
http://www.gutenberg.ca/ebooks/keynes-essaysinpersuasion/keynes-essaysinpersuasion-00-h.html

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

What Happened to Free Speech in Europe?

Is this the future of Europe? Now (apparently) people in Germany can’t even engage in rude political satire against a quasi-authoritarian head of a foreign state…



And, of course, it has backfired already:

Sunday, April 24, 2016

A Chronology of Karl Marx’s Life

I’ve covered the life of Karl Marx (1818–1883) in the series of posts here.

Below is a chronology of Marx’s life to complement those posts, with some other major political, social and cultural events of the time:
1810s
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

1805–1807 – Lord Byron at Trinity College, Cambridge

1809–July 1811 – Lord Byron goes on a Grand Tour of Europe, to Spain and Greece, Malta

12 February 1809 – birth of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

2 October 1809 – the British defeat the French fleet in Zakynthos and capture Kefallonia, Kythera and Zakynthos

5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

25 March 1811 – Percy Bysshe Shelley expuled from Oxford

6 April 1814 – Napoleon abdicated his throne

28 July 1814–13 September 1814 – Percy Bysshe Shelley elopes with Mary Godwin to the Continent, with Claire Clairmont; they travel to France and Switzerland

November 1814–9 June 1815 – the Congress of Vienna held in Vienna under Klemens Wenzel von Metternich

2 January 1815 – Lord Byron marries Annabella Millbanke; their daughter, Ada, was born in December of that year

20 March 1815–8 July 1815 – Hundred Days

9 June 1815 – signing of treaties of the Congress of Vienna

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

15 July 1815 – Napoleon demands asylum from British Captain Frederick Maitland on the HMS Bellerophon

16 October 1815 – Napoleon lands at St. Helena

20 November 1815–21 May 1864 – the British control the Ionian Islands, including Kerkyra (Corfu), Ithaki (Ithaca), Lefkada (Lefkas), Kefalonia (Cephalonia), Zakynthos (Zante), Paxi (Paxos), Kythira (Cythera). Corfu becomes the seat of the British Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Chronology:
January 1817 – Britain grants the Ionian Islands a new constitution
November 1858–March 1859 – William Ewart Gladstone is Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands
29 March 1864 – representatives of the United Kingdom, Greece, France, and Russia sign the Treaty of London, which pledges the transfer of the Ionian Islands to Greece upon ratification
2 May 1864 – the British leave the Ionian Islands
21 May 1864 – the Ionian Islands officially reunite with Greece.
25 April 1816 – Lord Byron left England forever

25 May 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary met Lord Byron in Geneva

25 May 1816–28 August 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet; on the night of the 14–15 June, the group recounts ghost stories and this is the origin of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein

30 December 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin married

11 March 1818 – Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and Claire’s daughter, Allegra, leave England, in order to take Allegra to her father Byron, who had taken up residence in Venice

March 1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, or, The modern Prometheus published

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

September 1818 – Charles Darwin begins his study as a boarder at the Shrewsbury School, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

1819–1821 – Lord Byron lived in Ravenna

1820s
29 January 1820–26 June 1830 – reign of George IV

23 February 1821 – death of John Keats

5 May 1821 – death of Napoléon Bonaparte on the island of Saint Helena

8 July 1822 – Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the Gulf of Spezia while returning from Leghorn (Livorno)

16 July 1823 – Byron left Genoa for Greece

1824 – Marx was baptised as a Christian

19 April 1824 – death of Lord Byron

October 1825–April 1827 – Charles Darwin studies medicine at Edinburgh University

July 1827 – Charles Darwin returns to Shrewsbury, Shropshire, from France

5 October 1827 – Charles Darwin accepted into Christ’s College, Cambridge; Darwin does not come into residence in Cambridge until 26 January 1828

January 1828–June 1831 – Charles Darwin at Christ’s College, Cambridge

1830s
1830–1835 – Marx attended Trier High School

26 June 1830–20 June 1837 – reign of William IV (son of George III)

27 December 1831–2 October 1836 – the famous voyage of the Beagle of Charles Darwin

27 December 1831 – Charles Darwin sets sail from Devonport, Plymouth

23 July–10 November 1834 – Charles Darwin visits Valparaiso

5 April–25 June 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Rio de Janeiro

26 July 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Montevideo

March 1833 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands

January 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan

March 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands

May–June 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan

1835–1836 – Marx attended the University of Bonn to study law

1836 – before leaving for Berlin Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen

1836–1840 – Marx attended the University of Berlin and joined the Young Hegelians

15 September–20 October 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Galapagos Islands

15–26 November 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Tahiti

21–30 December 1835 – Charles Darwin visits the Bay of Islands in the north island of New Zealand

12–30 January 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Sydney, Australia

15–17 February 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Hobart, Tasmania

6–14 March 1836 – Charles Darwin visits King George Sound, Western Australia

1–12 April 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cocos Keeling Islands

24 April–9 May 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Mauritius

31 May–15 June 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

8–14 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits St Helena

19–23 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Ascension Island

1–6 August 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Bahia

20–24 September 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Azores

2 October 1836 – Charles Darwin arrives back in England at Falmouth, Cornwall

1837 – Marx was a follower of Hegel and neglected his studies, all to his father’s intense disapproval

6 March 1837 – Charles Darwin moves from Cambridge to 36 Great Marlborough Street, London (in London from March 1837– September 1842)

20 June 1837 – accession of Queen Victoria (reigned from 1837–1901)

1838 – Marx visited his family in Trier to find his father on his death bed

c. 28 September 1838 – Charles Darwin reads Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population

1839
29 January 1839 – Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood married at Maer; they move to 12 Upper Gower Street in London

March 1839–October 1842 – the First Anglo-Afghan War between British India and the Emirate of Afghanistan:
December 1838 – the Army of the Indus under John Keane (1st Baron Keane) set out from Punjab
25 April–27 June 1839 – the army set up camp at Kandahar
22 July 1839 – British forces capture the fortress of Ghazni
August 1839 – Shuja Shah Durrani enthroned in Kabul
April–October 1841 – Afghan tribes north of the Hindu Kush mountains rebel
1 January 1842 – British garrison withdraws from Kabul; army attacked as it withdraws through snowbound passes
spring 1842 – Akbar Khan defeated near Jalalabad
August 1842 – General Nott advances from Kandahar and seizes Ghazni
September 1842 – British forces defeat all opposition and occupy Kabul
c. October 1842 – British forces withdraw from Afghanistan.
late 1839 – Marx embarked on his Doctoral dissertation called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

1840s
1840
1840–1844 – Francis Galton studies mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge

6 February 1840 – signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by British Crown and various Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand

10 February 1840 – marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

May 1840 – Captain William Hobson (appointed as Lieutenant-Governor over New Zealand as acquired from the Māori chiefs) proclaims British sovereignty over the South Island of New Zealand

1841
April 1841 – Marx was awarded his PhD from the University of Jena called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

June 1841 – Marx returned to Trier, and had firm plans to be an academic, but the Prussian state had entered a period of pronounced hostility to the Young Hegelians

1842
1842 – Marx moved to Cologne in 1842, and became a journalist, often writing for Rheinische Zeitung

14 September 1842 – Charles Darwin and his family move to Down house (at Down now renamed Downe), Kent

October 1842–February 1843 – Marx is the informal editor of the Rheinische Zeitung

October 1842 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in India (in India from 1842 to 1849)

1843
2 January 1843 – premiere of Richard Wagner’s opera The Flying Dutchman at the Semper Oper in Dresden

April 1843 – the Rheinische Zeitung was banned by the government and ceased publication

19 June 1843 – Marx marries Jenny von Westphalen

October 1843–1845 – Marx moves to Paris and writes for the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals) and then Vorwärts! (Forward!).

1844
February 1844 – the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher publishes Marx’s “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right,” and “On the Jewish Question.”

28 August 1844 – Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris

1844 – Marx wrote extended papers running to about 50,000 words called the “Paris Manuscripts” or “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844,” which were only published well after his death in 1927.

1843–1845 – Marx embarks on a reading of political economy, and in particular the works of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and James Mill in French translation, Jean-Baptiste Say and Wilhelm Schulz

1845
1845–1846 – Francis Galton travels to Egypt, Khartoum, the Sudan, Beirut, Damascus and down the Jordan

January 1845 – the Prussian government demanded Marx’s expulsion and the French government agreed to this

April 1845 – Marx moves from Paris to Brussels

April 1845 – Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890), a von Westphalen family servant, joined Marx’s household as a housekeeper and maid

1845–1847 – Marx lives in Brussels in Belgium

July 1845 – Marx and Engels visit Britain

1845 – Marx and Engels publish The Holy Family

1845–1847 – Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology, but this was never published in Marx’s lifetime

1846
1846 – Marx and Engels formed the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels

1847
1847 – Marx publishes The Poverty of Philosophy, an attack on Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s The System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty. Marx also set out his materialist view of history in this work, in which he had moved on from both Hegel and Ludwig von Feuerbach.

May 1847 – the British Government agreed to take over the debts of the New Zealand Company and to buy out their interests in the Colony

June 1847 – the London-based “League of the Just” held a meeting in London in which it decided to merge with Marx and Engels’ Communist Corresponding Committee. The new organisation was called the “Communist League” (1847–1852).

December 1847 to January 1848 – Marx and Engels write The Communist Manifesto

1848
21 February 1848 – The Communist Manifesto first published

March 1848 – Belgium expels Marx after putting him in jail for a night

23 March 1848–24 March 1849 – First Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire

1848 – Marx in France

15 March 1848–4 October 1849 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848

23 March 1848 – the first settler ship the John Wickliffe arrives in Port Chalmers

27 March 1848 – foundation of the Canterbury Association (1848–1853), which is incorporated by Royal Charter on 13 November 1849; this was led by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Robert Godley. Wakefield was involved in the New Zealand Company, which by that time had already established four other colonies in New Zealand

April 1848 – Marx moved to Cologne

15 April 1848 – the second settler ship the Philip Laing arrives in Port Chalmers, New Zealand


1848–1849 – Marx in Cologne

September 1848 – there was an insurrection in Cologne but this was suppressed by the Prussians and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was shut down in October

September 1848 – Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded at the home of John Millais’s parents on Gower Street, London by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt

2 December 1848–21 November 1916 – reign of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria

1849
February 1849 – Marx was indicted for incitement to rebellion in Cologne, but in a trial was acquitted

March 1849 – Richard Francis Burton sails from Bombay

19 May 1849 – Marx left Cologne

27 or 28 August 1849 – Marx arrived in London

12 November 1849 – Engels arrived in London

1849–1883 – Marx lives in London

1850
1850 – Marx had an affair with Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890) and an illegitimate son Frederick Demuth was born in 1851.

8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx lived at 64 Dean Street, Soho

June 1850 – Marx acquired an admission card to the library of the British Museum

1850–1856 – Marx lived at 28 Dean Street, Soho

c. November 1850 – Engels moves to Manchester to serve as a clerk in his father’s business Ermen and Engels

16 December 1850 – first ships of settlers arrived in Canterbury, New Zealand

1850s
1851
April 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 May–11 October 1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London

23 June 1851 – Marx’s illegitimate child Henry Frederick was born

October 1851–July 1853 – William Stanley Jevons at University College, London; he leaves without degree

November 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852
26 May–26 June 1852 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852 – Marx published The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, an analysis of the French revolution of 1848 and the rise of the emperor Louis Napoleon III

30 June 1852 – New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which grants self-government to the Colony of New Zealand

October–November 1852 – the Cologne communist trial saw a number of the members of the Communist league connected with Marx and Willich jailed as seditious revolutionaries, and Marx agreed to the dissolution of the league

20 December 1852 – Lower Burma was formally annexed by the British empire

1853
2 February 1853 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield arrives in Christchurch; after a month goes to Wellington

1 August 1853 – Francis Galton marries Louisa Jane Butler (1822–1897)

October 1853–30 March 1856 – Crimean war

1853–1862 – Marx turned to journalism in papers in England, the US, Prussia, Austria and South Africa, but mostly in the New York Tribune

30 April–May 1853 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1854
1854 – Marx befriended by David Urquhart (1805–1877)

1854–1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

2 May 1854–1858 – Samuel Butler at St John, Cambridge

24 May 1854 – 1st New Zealand Parliament was opened

29 June 1854 – William Stanley Jevons sails from Britain to Sydney, Australia

September 1854 – Richard Francis Burton first meets John Hanning Speke in Aden

6 October 1854–March 1859 – William Stanley Jevons in Australia as assayer to the new mint; Hunter River (May 1865); Wollongong (April 1857); Melbourne (March 1859)

29 October 1854–9 February 1855 – Richard Francis Burton makes an expedition to Harar (in present-day Ethiopia)

1855
2 March 1855–13 March 1881 – reign of Alexander II of Russia

April 1855 – Marx’s son Edgar died

16 April–May 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

June–30 September 1855 – Richard Francis Burton rejoins the army and travels to the Crimea to fight in the Crimean War

September–c.November 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 September 1855 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield retired from the Hutt seat and leaves political life

1856
1856–1863 – pea plant experiments conducted by Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) on the rules of heredity at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

1856 – Marx moved out of Soho to 9 Grafton Terrace in Kentish town

1856–1859 – the Second Opium War

6 May 1856 – birth of Sigmund Freud

c. July 1856 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1857
1857 – Francis Galton and his wife move to 42 Rutland Gate, where he lives until his death in 1911

27 June 1857–February 1859 – John Hanning Speke and Richard Francis Burton set out from Zanzibar and discover Lake Tanganyika February 1858) and Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile

1857 – UK recession

1857–1858 – Marx writes Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy), which were not even published until 1939

May 1857–June 1858 – Indian mutiny

2 May 1857 – the Reading Room extension of the British Library officially opened; from 8–16 May, the library was opened for a special public viewing

1858
31 January 1858 – launch of the SS Great Eastern at the Isle of Dogs, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel

1 May–c. late May 1858 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 July 1858 – papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection are read to the Linnean Society of London

2 August 1858 – Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown

27 October 1858 – Theodore Roosevelt born at East 20th Street in New York City, New York

autumn 1858–spring 1859 – Samuel Butler moves to Heddon Street, London, to work as an assistant to Reverend Philip Perring

1859
March–September 1859 – William Stanley Jevons returns to Britain via Peru, Panama, Havana, and the United States

June 1859 – Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

c.June–July 1859 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels and Dundee to see Peter Imandt and Heise

9 June 1859 – emergence of the British Liberal Party. British Prime Ministers:
Liberal
12 June 1859–18 October 1865 – Henry John Temple (3rd Viscount Palmerston)
29 October 1865–28 June 1866 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
Conservative
28 June 1866–25 February 1868 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
27 February 1868–1 December 1868 – Benjamin Disraeli is British Minister
Liberal
3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister
30 September 1859 – Samuel Butler leaves England for New Zealand on board the Roman Emperor at Gravesend

October 1859–October 1860 – William Stanley Jevons returns to University College, London, to finish his BA degree

24 November 1859 – Origin of Species published

1860
1860 – Marx became anathema to the German émigré community in London when Karl Vogt accused Marx of being a police informer and having sold out his political allies

c. January 1860 – Julius von Haast moves to Canterbury; he becomes the provincial geologist at Canterbury from 1861 to 1868

27 January 1860 – Samuel Butler arrives in Lyttleton, New Zealand

27 January 1860–15 June 1864 – the novelist Samuel Butler in New Zealand
1860
c. March–April 1860 – Samuel Butler travels up the Waimakariri and sees Arthur’s Pass by looking up the Bealey River
April 1860 – Samuel Butler rides up the Rangitata River
6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; on 22 September Run 242 is given to him
2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch
25 December 1860 – Christmas at Mesopotamia

1861
15 February 1861 – Julius von Haast officially becomes Canterbury’s Provincial Geologist
January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon
March 1861 – Samuel Butler’s holdings amount to over 40,000 acres, with 2000 sheep; he has 6 workers
April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand
25 May 1861 – the Christchurch The Press begins under the ownership of James Edward Fitzgerald
September 1861 – Samuel Butler’s second hut at Mesopotamia finished; in this year he rides to Mount Somers to visit the Tripps

1862
March 1862 – Samuel Butler takes John Brabazon as a partner
August 1862 – Samuel Butler starts to shift to Christchurch; he corrects proofs of A First Year in Canterbury Settlement
August 1862 – Samuel Butler renounces Christianity
20 December 1862 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin on the Origin of Species, A Dialogue” in the Christchurch The Press

1863
13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand
September 1863 – Samuel Butler mainly based in Christchurch and staying at Carlton Hotel on the Papanui Road; he first meets Charles Paine Pauli
December 1863 – Samuel Butler rides with William Parkerson to Mesopotamia

1864
March 1864 – Arthur Dudley Dobson and his brother Edward find Arthur’s Pass
May 1864 – William Parkerson takes Mesopotamia
9 June 1864 – Samuel Butler says farewell to Julius von Haast
15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli sail from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas
16 February–23 March 1860 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

11 May–30 September 1860 – Garibaldi’s Redshirts invade Sicily and Naples

16 June 1860 – first voyage of the SS Great Eastern to North America

30 June 1860 – famous debate on Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at Oxford University Museum, during the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; this becomes the Mesopotamia run

2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch, New Zealand

November 1860 – Marx’s wife Jenny fell seriously ill with smallpox; Marx read Darwin’s revolutionary book On the Origin of Species

6 November 1860 – United States presidential election of 1860; Abraham Lincoln elected

December 1860 – Marx published Karl Vogt

1 December 1860–3 August 1861 – Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations published in the journal All the Year Round in the UK

1860s
1861
1861 – Sheridan Le Fanu’s becomes editor and proprietor of the Dublin University Magazine

January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon

February–May 1861 – Marx travels to Germany, and arrived in Berlin on 18 March, in order to attempt to organise with Lassalle a new radical newspaper in Germany that he could edit. He visited Trier at this time and saw his mother, but the visit did not go well and she broke off contact. Marx visits Holland. Marx arrived back in England in May 1861

19 February 1861 – Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom

4 March 1861 – inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as US president (in office from 4 March 1861–15 April 1865)

17 March 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Italy

April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand

12 April 1861–9 May 1865 – American Civil War

20 May 1861 – discovery of gold at Gabriel’s Gully in Otago, the first gold discovery of magnitude in Otago

20 May 1861–1864 – the Otago Gold Rush (the Central Otago Gold Rush), an 1860s gold rush in Central Otago, New Zealand, the largest gold strike in the country; centres in Lawrence (on the Tuapeka River); Arrowtown, Kawarau Gorge, Naseby

August–September 1861 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

November 1861 – the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) returns from Ireland as an ensign and lives at Madingley Hall, Cambridge; his father Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha hears the rumour of an affair between Edward and an actress Nellie Clifden

15 November 1861 – The Otago Daily Times first published

14 December 1861 – death of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1862
24 January 1862 – the principality of Moldavia and the principality of Wallachia formally unite to create Romania:
Princes
5 January 1859–5 February 1862 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Prince of Moldavia)
24 January 1859–5 February 1862 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Prince of Wallachia)

Domnitor/Kings of Romania
5 February 1862–22 February 1866 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Alexandru Ioan I), Domnitor of Romania

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Dynasty of Romania
20 April 1866–15 March 1881 – Carol, Domnitor of Romania (king in 1881)
15 March 1881–10 October 1914 – Carol I (born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen)
10 October 1914 – 20 July 1927 – Ferdinand I
11 February 1862 – death of Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, wife of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

March 1862–May 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry’s central Asian journey

March 1862 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves Istanbul on a steamer on a journey to Tehran

April 1862 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

1 April 1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace returns to England from the Malay Archipelago

7 May 1862 – SS Great Eastern sails from Milford Haven to New York

16 May 1862 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield died in Wellington

July 1862 – the German radical Ferdinand Lassalle (1825–1864) visited Marx in London

27 August 1862 – SS Great Eastern scraped an uncharted rock off Long Island, which tore an 83 feet long gush in the outer hull. Since the inner hull was unbroken, ship was able to sail to New York; it then left New York on 6 January 1863

c. September 1862 – Marx sought a job in a railway company but was turned down for bad handwriting

December 1862 – Jenny Marx travels to Paris to try and obtain a loan from an old friend, but fails

1863
1863 – Henry Fawcett publishes the Manual of Political Economy

1863 – Marx starts to have severe health problems involving carbuncles, which may have been caused by an autoimmune disease

7 January 1863 – Mary Burns (1823–1863), partner of Friedrich Engels, dies

8 January 1863 – Marx writes a money-grubbing letter to Engels, which outrages Engels; however, Engels later sends £100 to Marx

19 January 1863–26 June 1879 – rule of Isma’il Pasha (or Ismail the Magnificent who lived from 31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan

28 March 1863 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves Tehran, Iran, on his Central Asian journey

April 1863 – Henry Whitcombe and Jakob Lauper (a Swiss) cross Whitcombe Pass into the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand and travel down the Hokitika river

April 1863 – William Stanley Jevons takes tutoring position at Owens College, Manchester

13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand

July 1863 – Samuel Butler’s father publishes A First Year in Canterbury Settlement in his son’s name from the letters sent by Butler

6 July 1863 – Jakob Lauper’s narrative of his crossing to the West Coast is published in Canterbury Provincial Gazette

27 November 1863 – Henry Fawcett appointed Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge (27 November 1863–6 November 1884)

30 November 1863 – Marx’s mother dies, and Marx journeys to Trier to claim an inheritance of £580

1864
1864 – Jules Verne’s Voyage au centre de la Terre (Journey to the Center of the Earth) is published

8 January 1864 – birth of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

14 January 1864 – Great Eastern offered for sale; later sold to become a cable laying ship from 1865 to 1878

1864–December 1865 – King Ludwig II has Richard Wagner brought to Munich and Wagner’s time in Munich

1 February–30 October 1864 – Second Schleswig War

March 1864 – Marx moved to 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London

12 March–25 March 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

29 March 1864 – representatives of the United Kingdom, Greece, France, and Russia sign the Treaty of London, which pledges the transfer of the Ionian Islands to Greece upon ratification

10 April 1864 – Maximilian I declared himself Emperor of Mexico

May 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry returns to Hungary from Istanbul

2 May 1864 – the British leave the Ionian Islands

3 May–19 May 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Wilhelm Wolff with Engels

after 9 May 1864 – Marx receives an inheritance of £700 from his friend Wilhelm Wolff

21 May 1864 – the Ionian Islands officially reunite with Greece

15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler (accompanied by his friend Charles Paine Pauli) sails from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas

27 June 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry appears at the British Royal Geographic Society

29 August 1864 – Samuel Butler arrives in Southampton

31 August 1864 – death of Ferdinand Lassalle in a duel

September 1864 – Samuel Butler lives at No. 15 Clifford’s Inn (off Fleet Street); he lives here for the rest of his life

28 September 1864 – Marx was involved with the International Workingmen’s Association or the First International (1864–1876), which was founded in a workmen’s meeting held in Saint Martin’s Hall, London

17 October 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves London for France

2 November 1864–1870 – Bram Stoker attends Trinity College, Dublin; Stoker graduated with a Bachelor in Arts degree at the Spring Commencements on 1 March 1870

November 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry’s book Travels in Central Asia is published by John Murray

16 December 1864–1 November 1881 – construction of the nave and tower of Christchurch Cathedral, Cathedral Square; construction delayed from 1865–1873; the transepts, chancel and sanctuary finished until 1904

1865
1865–1866 – Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) proposes his laws of biological inheritance while at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

1865 – Jules Verne’s De la terre à la lune (From the Earth to the Moon) is published

1865–1869 – Richard Burton in Brazil

January 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

19 March–April 8 1865 – Marx visits Dutch relatives in Zalt-Bommel

April 1865 – William Stanley Jevons’ The Coal Question is published

30 April 1865 – death of Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin’s famous voyage

9 June 1865 – the Staplehurst rail crash, the derailment at Staplehurst, Kent of the London boat train of the South Eastern Railway Folkestone; Charles Dickens with Ellen Ternan and her mother were on board

20 and 27 June 1865 – Marx’s delivers a series of lectures later published as Value, Price and Profit (in 1898)

1 July 1865 – Samuel Butler rewrites and expands “Darwin among the Machines” into “The Mechanical Creation” and publishes it in The Reasoner

26 July 1865 – New Zealand Parliament officially met in Wellington for the first time

29 July 1865 – Samuel Butler’s “Lucubratio Ebria” published in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand

17 August–21 September 1865 – Samuel Butler travels to Europe, to Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Paris, Macon, Turin, Milan, Bologna, Florence, Leghorn; he then travels by steamer to Genoa, and back via Turin, Mâcon, Paris and London

October 1865 – Arminius Vámbéry receives an appointment as professor of Oriental languages in the University of Budapest; appointed professor in 1867

October 1865 – Friedrich Nietzsche transfers to the University of Leipzig to study Classical philology

20 October–November 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

November 1865 – Alfred Marshall elected to a fellowship at St John’s College at Cambridge

8 December 1865 – Samuel Butler attends a séance at the home of Marshman with Alfred Russel Wallace

Christmas 1865 – Samuel Butler at Langar

1866
1866 – Bram Stoker receives a civil service post at Dublin Castle

1866–1871 – David Livingstone’s famous trip to find the source of the Nile

February 1866 – Charles Paine Pauli ill with typhoid, and is living with Samuel Butler

March 1866 – Marx spends four weeks convalescing in Margate

5 April 1866 – Alfred Russel Wallace marries Annie Mitten in Hurstpierpoint Anglican church

May 1866 – William Stanley Jevons appointed professor of moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens College, Manchester (May 1866–February 1876)

14 June–23 August 1866 – Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks’ War

20 June–12 August 1866 – Third Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire

autumn 1866 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli spend a holiday in Dieppe; they gradually reduce contact to lunch three times a week

3–8 September 1866 – 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association, held in Geneva, Switzerland

1867
1867–1869 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth studies at Oxford

1867 – Samuel Butler begins to study art at Heatherley’s at 79 Newman Street by December 1867

9 April 1867 – Marx took the manuscript of volume 1 of Capital to his in Hamburg

22 May–2 June 1867 – Marx visits Manchester with Hermann Meyer to see Engels

29 May 1867 – Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

19 June 1867 – execution of Maximilian I of Mexico

September 1867 – Carl Menger starts to study political economy

2–8 September 1867 – 2nd General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland

14 September 1867 – the first volume of Das Kapital published in German

13–23 September 1867 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

November 1867–April 1868 – Charles Dickens’ second visit to the United States

9 November 1867 – opening of the Lyttelton railway tunnel for the Christchurch–Lyttleton line; the first freight train passes through the tunnel 18 November

14 November 1867 – Henrik Ibsen’s play Peer Gynt published in Copenhagen

by December 1867 – Samuel Butler begins to study art at Heatherley’s at 79 Newman Street by December 1867; Butler also attended the South Kensington Museum and Cary’s (Streatham Street, Bloomsbury), but ceased to go there after he went to Heatherley’s; he meets Eliza Mary Ann Savage at the school

1868
2 April 1868 – Marx’s daughter Laura Marx marries Paul Lafargue

30 May–20 June 1868 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

6–13 September 1868 – the Brussels Congress of the First International

15 September 1868 – opening of the Otago Museum, Dunedin, New Zealand, from the 1865 New Zealand Exhibition (held in Dunedin); it was originally located in the post office building of The Exchange

8 November 1868 – Friedrich Nietzsche meets Richard Wagner at a party in Leipzig

3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister

1869
1869–1871 – Richard Francis Burton in Damascus

January 1869 – Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy

March 1869–June 1870 – Jules Verne’s Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is published and serialized in the periodical Magasin d’Éducation et de Récréation

9 March 1869 – Alfred Russel Wallace publishes The Malay Archipelago in two volumes

May–14 June 1869 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester with his daughter Eleanor

28 May 1869 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s first lecture as Assistant Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel (May 1869–2 May 1879) on “On the Personality of Homer”; full Professor in April 1870

1 June 1869 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in England from Brazil

30 June 1869 – Engels retires from Ermen and Engels

August 1869 – John Ruskin appointed as the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University

6–12 September 1869 – Basle Congress of the International Workingmen's Association

September 1869 – Engels and Lizzie Burns visit Dublin, Killarney and Cork

10 September–11 October 1869 – Marx and his daughter Jenny Marx visit Hanover

November 1869 – Francis Galton’s Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences is published by Macmillan; 2nd edn. 1892

November 1869–31 March 1870 – Samuel Butler travels via Antwerp, Brussels, Luxemburg, Basel, Fluelen, Airolo, Giornico, Bellinzona, Como, Villa d’Este, Milan, Bergamo, Brescia, Desenzano, Genoa, and San Remo to Mentone (he stays from mid-December–March 1870 for painting); he then goes on foot to Sospello, Giandola, Tenda; and by diligence to Cuneo, Turin, Parma, Modena, Florence, Bologna, Venice, Turin, Macon, Paris, and England

17 November 1869 – Suez Canal officially opened

December 1869 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Damascus

1870s
1870
17 February 1870 – introduction of the UK Elementary Education Act 1870 (Forster’s Education Act), which requires the schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales

25 March 1870–25 March 1872 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Holly House, Tanner Street, Barking

5–21 April 1870 – Richard Francis Burton visits Palmyra

22 April 1870 – birth of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)

June 1870 – Edward A. Freeman receives an honorary degree of the Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford

9 June 1870–1874 – Arthur Evans attends Brasenose College, Oxford

9 June 1870 – death of Charles Dickens from a stroke

19 July 1870–10 May 1871 – Franco-Prussian war

25 August 1870 – Richard Wagner’s marriage to Cosima Liszt (the daughter of the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt)

summer 1870 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

2 September 1870 – Napoleon III surrenders to the Germans at Sedan

4 September 1870 – Léon Gambetta proclaimed the return of the French Republic

20 September 1870 – Engels moved from Manchester to London and lived with Lydia “Lizzie” Burns, Mary Burns’s sister

20 September 1870 – Italian troops take Rome from the Papacy, the last event of Italian unification (Risorgimento)

12 November 1870 – Léon Walras is appointed Adjunct Professor at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

16 December 1870 – Léon Walras gives his first lecture at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

1871
1871 – Carl Menger publishes Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre (Principle of Economics)

1871–1874 – Oscar Wilde attends Trinity College, Dublin

1871–1887 – the construction of Larnach Castle on the Otago Peninsula, Dunedin, by William Larnach (1833–1898); Larnach himself took up residence in 1874

18 January 1871 – Wilhelm I formally proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles

28 January 1871 – the French Government of National Defence signs an armistice with the Prussians

24 February 1871 – Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

1 March 1871 – the French national assembly officially deposed Napoleon III

18 March–28 May 1871 – Paris Commune

May–September 1871 – Samuel Butler travels to Antwerp, Cologne, Mayence, Carlsruhe, Basel, Gersau, Altdorf, Amsteg, Wasen, Hospenthal, and Bellinzona to Arona (in September; on Lago Maggiore), Varallo-Sesia (he stays some weeks at the Albergo d’Italia); Fobello, Arona, Bergamo, crosses the Splügen

c. 13 June 1871 – Marx published The Civil War in France

5 July 1871 – opening of the University of Otago, New Zealand; it relocates to Maxwell Bury’s Clocktower (a Gothic revival building) in 1879

24 July 1871 – Léon Walras is appointed Full Professor at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

August 1871 – Richard Francis Burton recalled from Damascus

October 1871 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth settles in London

October 1871 – William Stanley Jevons’ The Theory of Political Economy is published

8–10 October 1871 – the Great Chicago Fire, a conflagration in Chicago that killed 300 people, destroyed about 3.3 square miles of Chicago, Illinois, and left more than 100,000 people homeless

11 October 1871 – Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822–26 December 1890) begins excavation of mound of Hissarlik in western Turkey, the site of ancient Troy

10 November 1871 – Livingstone’s famous meeting with H. M. Stanley

25 November 1871 – Henry Irving abandons his wife Florence O’Callaghan

December 1871–March 1872 – Sheridan Le Fanu’s novel Carmilla serialised in the magazine The Dark Blue

1872
1872–1890 – Richard Francis Burton British Consul in Trieste

1872 – Sheridan Le Fanu publishes In a Glass Darkly, a collection of five short stories

2 January 1872 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) first published by E. W. Fritsch in Leipzig

March 1872 – Samuel Butler’s Erewhon: or, Over the Range is first published anonymously

25 March 1872–July 1876 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at the Dell, Grays, Essex, where he lived until 1876

1 April–14 August 1872 – Heinrich Schliemann’s 1872 season at Hisarlik, during which he excavates part of the wall of Troy II

22 April 1872 – Wagner leaves Switzerland and travels to live in Bayreuth

18 May 1872 – birth of Bertrand Russell at Ravenscroft, Trellech, Monmouthshire

18–23 May 1872 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s first trip to Bayreuth; he sees the foundation of the theatre

30 May 1872 – Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf publishes a severe criticism of The Birth of Tragedy in a pamphlet entitled Zukunftsphilologie!

June 1872 – Carl Menger obtains his Habilitierung for Political Economy at the University of Vienna

26 June 1872–22 February 1873 – Engels publishes The Housing Question in Volksstaat

July 1872 – Samuel Butler’s Erewhon: or, Over the Range published in a slightly revised second edition

August 1872 – Arthur Evans and Norman Evans travel to Petrozsény, Hermannstadt, Mühlenbach, Kronstadt, Kimpina, Ploesti, Bucharest, Giurgevo, Rustchuk, and along the Danube to Belgrade

2–7 September 1872 – 5th congress of the First International meets in the Hague; Bakunin was expelled from the International and the General Council was moved to New York, which effectively killed the International so that it dissolved in 1876

October–November 1872 – Edward A. Freeman visits Aachen, Koln, Mainz, Würzburg, Innsbruck, Trent, Verona, Venice, Padua, Bologna, Ravenna, Pisa, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Pistoia, Pavia, Milan, and Switzerland

10 October 1872 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Marx marries the French socialist Charles Longuet

November 1872 – Samuel Butler visits Charles Darwin at Down

6 December 1872 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Trieste

1873
1873 – Walter Bagehot (editor of The Economist) publishes Lombard Street

March 1873 – Samuel Butler publishes The Fair Haven

1873–1874 – the Bihar famine of 1873–1874 (or Bengal famine of 1873–1874), a famine in British India after a drought in Bihar, parts of Bengal, the North-Western Provinces and Oudh; a relief effort was organized by Sir Richard Temple, Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal

1 January 1873 – Dunedin’s first railway, the Port Chalmers Branch, opened

30 January 1873 – Jules Verne’s Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (Around the World in Eighty Days) is published; serialised in 1872

February–June 1873 – Heinrich Schliemann’s third season of excavation, the 1873 season at Hisarlik; Schliemann discovers the paved ramp of Troy II

7 February 1873 – death of the novelist Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu (28 August 1814–7 February 1873) in Dublin

19 March 1873 – Marx goes on a trip to Brighton with his daughter Eleanor

April 1873 – Marx leaves his daughter Eleanor in Brighton, since she wishes to leave home and find employment

1 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife leave Trieste for a trip to Italy and Vienna:
1 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton leaves Trieste by ship for Ancona and Loreto
3 April – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Rome, then travels to Florence, Pistojia and Bologna
25 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton arrives back in Trieste
1 May 1873 – Richard Francis Burton in Vienna for the opening ceremony of the 1873 Vienna World’s Fair (World Exposition 1873 Vienna)
c. 22 May 1873 – Richard Francis Burton leave Vienna
8 April 1873–6 July 1875 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

May 1873 – Arthur Evans publishes his travel essay “Over the Marches of Civilised Europe” in Fraser’s Magazine

May–July 1873 – Friedrich Max Müller publishes three lectures on “Mr. Darwin’s Philosophy of Language” in Fraser’s Magazine, which he gave at the Royal Institution

1 May 1873–31 October 1873 – the 1873 Vienna World’s Fair (World Exposition 1873 Vienna) held in Vienna

after May 1873 – Elisée Reclus travels to Hungary and Petrozsény

9 May 1873 – the Vienna Stock Exchange crashes, and a number of bank failures in Austria occur

22 May–June 1873 – Marx visits Manchester to see Dr Gumpert

16 June 1873 – Canterbury Provincial Council Ordinance establishes University of Canterbury in Christchurch; from 1874 to 1961 University of New Zealand was New Zealand’s only degree-granting university, and included Otago and Canterbury

June 1873 – the second German edition of volume I of Das Kapital is published in Hamburg

June 1873 – Heinrich Schliemann and his wife Sophia Schliemann discover a cache of golden bracelets, diadems, earrings and rings at Hissarlik; it is dubbed “Priam’s Treasure”

June 1873 – George Bernard Shaw leaves Dublin for London

June 1873 – Karl Marx sends Charles Darwin the second German edition of Das Kapital; Thomas Huxley visits Charles Darwin at Downe house, before Huxley’s trip to the Continent

6 June 1873 – the Schönbrunn Convention is signed by Russia and Austria-Hungary

19 July 1873 – death of Samuel Wilberforce, the Anglican bishop and third son of William Wilberforce

Autumn 1873 – Freud enters Vienna University as medical student

September 1873 – Carl Menger becomes non-tenured associated professor in the Faculty of Law and Political Science at the University of Vienna (1873– 1903)

early September 1873 – Marx’s daughter Eleanor returned to London

18 September 1873 – the American company Jay Cooke & Company declares bankruptcy; the Panic of 1873 begins

20 September 1873 – the New York Stock Exchange closes for ten days starting on this day

1 October 1873 – Charles Darwin writes a letter to Karl Marx, thanking him for the gift of the second German edition of Das Kapital

22 October 1873 – Bismarck establishes the League of the Three Emperors between the German Empire, Russia, and Austria-Hungary from 1873 to 1878; it was dissolved over territorial disputes in the Balkans in 1878; revived in June 1881

November 1873 – the Harvard philosopher John Fiske visits Charles Darwin at Downe house

18–21 November 1873 – Irish Home Rule League founded

24 November 1873 – Marx leaves London for a spa in Harrogate (near Leeds in North England), owing to bad heath; he is accompanied by Eleanor “Tussy” Marx and visits Manchester twice during the holiday; he stays until December 15

15 December 1873 – Marx returns to London

1874
1874 – Léon Walras publishes Éléments d’économie politique pure, ou théorie de la richesse sociale (Elements of Pure Economics, or the Theory of Social Wealth)

1874–1878 – Oscar Wilde attends Magdalen College, Oxford

January 1874 – Charles Darwin visits London to consult Dr Andrew Clark; Darwin attends a séance at the home of his brother Erasmus

31 January–17 February 1874 – the United Kingdom general election of 1874; the results:
Party | Seats Won
Conservative | 350
Liberal | 242
Home Rule | 60
Benjamin Disraeli’s Conservatives win the majority of seats in the House of Commons, even though the Liberals win a majority of the votes cast, and Benjamin Disraeli becomes UK Prime Minister on 20 February 1874

February 1874 – Heinrich Schliemann publishes Trojanische Alterthümer

20 February 1874–21 April 1880 – Benjamin Disraeli is Prime Minister of the UK

21 February 1874–2 April 1878 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is UK Secretary of State for India

c. 7 March 1874 – New Zealand University Act

April 1874 – William Stanley Jevons’ Principles of Science is published

April 1874 – Charles Darwin sends the second edition of the Descent of Man to the printers

mid-April 1874 – Marx takes a three-week seaside cure alone at Ramsgate (near Canterbury), owing to bad health (carbuncles and liver trouble)

15 April 1874 – Lord Randolph Churchill marries Jennie Jerome (an American from New York and daughter of Leonard Jerome)

10 June 1874 – Samuel Butler sails for Montreal

June–c. 17 July 1874 – Samuel Butler in Montreal

June 1874 – teaching begins at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, in its first term, with five part-time lecturers

June–July 1874 – Richard Francis Burton becomes seriously in Trieste

July 1874 – Marx took a three-week vacation in Ryde on the Isle of Wight

c. 17 July–5 August 1874 – Samuel Butler returns to London

August 1874 – Charles Darwin and his family take a holiday in Southampton

c. August–21 September 1874 – Richard Francis Burton in Padua to see a doctor and Battaglia to recover from illness

5 August 1874–May 1875 – Samuel Butler in Montreal, Canada

7 August 1874 – the UK Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, introduced as a private member’s bill by the Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to restrict the ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England, is given royal assent

15 August 1874 – Marx departed for the spa town of Karlsbad in Bohemia (which he also visited in 1875 and 1876) with his daughter Tussy

August–19 September 1874 – Marx in Karlsbad (a spa resort, now Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic); before 8 September Marx breaks with Louis (Ludwig) Kugelmann

c. September 1875 – Samuel Butler back in Montreal, Canada and goes to New York

September 1874 – Marx went on a two-week tour of German cities and travels to Dresden, Leipzig (where he met Liebknecht), Berlin and Hamburg; he meets his publisher Meissner

17 October 1874 – Oscar Wilde enters Magdalen College, Oxford

October 1874–November 1878 – Oscar Wilde attends Magdalen College, Oxford to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree

November 1874 – Richard Wagner finishes the score of the Ring of the Niebelungen

13 November 1874 – the second edition of the Descent of Man is published

30 November 1874 – birth of Winston Churchill

8 December 1874 – Isabel Burton leaves Trieste for England; she arrives 12 December

1875
14 January 1875 – enactment of US Specie Payment Resumption Act, which restores the gold standard by redemption of fiat notes printed after the American Civil War

22 January 1875 – death of Charles Lyell

9 February 1875 – Bram Stoker awarded a Master’s degree from Trinity College

March 1875 – Marx family moves to 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street), and lived here until he died

20 March 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann’s Troy and its Remains is published by John Murray, London; this is an English translation of Trojanische Alterthümer. Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Troja (1874)

25 March 1875 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s comic opera Trial by Jury premières

April–July 1875 – Arthur Evans attended a summer term at the University of Göttingen

April or early May 1875 – Marx writes the letter that would become the Critique of the Gotha Program, which was only published in 1891

21 April 1875 – Charles Stewart Parnell elected to the House of Commons

12 May–4 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton in England

June 1875–spring 1876 – Andrew Crosse’s journey from Budapest along the Danube to Romania and Transylvania

June–July 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann visits Britain and gives a lecture at the Society of Antiquaries on 24 June

c. 6–30 July 1875 – Richard Francis Burton in Iceland

9 July 1875–4 August 1877 – Herzegovina Uprising, an uprising of ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly in Herzegovina and then in Bosnia

July 1875–3 March 1878 – Balkan Wars of 1875–1878:
(1) July 1875 – Herzegovina Uprising (9 July 1875–4 August 1877), an uprising of ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly in Herzegovina and then in Bosnia
(2) April 1876 – April Uprising of Bulgarians (April–May 1876) against the Ottoman Empire
(3) June 1876 – Montenegrin–Ottoman War (18 June 1876–19 February 1878), which ends in Montenegrin victory
(4) June 1876 – Serbo-Turkish War (30 June 1876–3 March 1878)
(5) December 1876 – Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers (namely, Russia, Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy) held in Istanbul (23 December 1876–20 January 1877)
(6) April 1877 – Russo-Turkish War (24 April 1877–3 March 1878)
(7) 3 March 1878 – the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
(8) 13 June–13 July 1878 – Congress of Berlin
(9) 13 July 1878 – Treaty of Berlin signed at the Radziwill Palace in Berlin
August 1875 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa

August–September 1875 – Arthur Evans travels in Bosnia, and visits Tesanj, Sarajevo, Mostar, Metković, and Ragusa

17 August 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann gives a lecture on “Troy and its Ruins” at the University of Rostock, Germany

after August 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann publishes Troja und seine Ruinen (C. Quandt, Waren 1875)

c. September 1875 – Samuel Butler back in Montreal, Canada and goes to New York

September 1875 – Carl Menger invited to be a tutor to Archduke Rudolf von Habsburg, the Crown Prince of Austria

October 1875 – Edward A. Freeman visits Spalato

October 1875–May 1876 – the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) tours India

November 1875 – Francis Galton publishes a study called “History of Twins as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture” in Fraser’s Magazine

November 1875 – Benjamin Disraeli buys the Khedive of Egypt’s 44% stake in the Suez canal; The Times newspaper reveals this on 26 November, 1875

3 November 1875 – Charles Darwin appears before a Royal Commission on vivisection of animals

17 November 1875 – the Theosophical Society officially founded in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge, and others

4 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife leave London for Trieste

7 December 1875 – Samuel Butler back in London

24 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife arrive in Trieste from England

31 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife sail from Trieste for India; they visit Port Said, Jedda, and Aden in January 1876

1876
1876 – Cesare Lombroso’s L’Uomo Delinquente (Criminal Man) first published

1876 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Troy after January, but leaves by August

1876 – Julius von Haast appointed professor of geology and palaeontology at University of Canterbury, New Zealand

3 January 1876–1879 – Carl Menger is tutor of Archduke Rudolf von Habsburg, the Crown Prince of Austria in political economy and statistics

1 January 1876 – founding of the German Reichsbank

February 1876 – William Stanley Jevons resigns as professor of moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens College

2 February–April 1876 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in India: Bombay, Poona, Hyderabad, Amir el-Kebir, Karachi and Sind (March), Kotri, Karachi, Bombay, Mahabaleshwar, Goa

8 February 1876–May 1877 – the Great Sioux War of 1876–1877. The Agreement of 1877 (28 February 1877) officially annexes Sioux land and establishes Indian reservations

24 February 1876 – the play Peer Gynt first performed in Oslo, with original music composed by Edvard Grieg

15 February 1876–1 September 1876 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

10 March 1876 – first telephone call made between Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson

April–May 1876 – April Uprising, the insurrection of Bulgarians against the Ottoman Empire

April 1876 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; he visits Suez, Moses’ Well, Cairo

12 April 1876–8 June 1880 – Lord Lytton (1831–1891) is Governor-General and Viceroy of India
Governors-General and Viceroys of India
12 January 1869–8 February 1872 – Earl of Mayo (1822–1872)
9 February 1872–23 February 1872 – Sir John Strachey (acting) (1823–1907)
24 February 1872–3 May 1872 – Lord Napier (acting)
3 May 1872–12 April 1876 – Lord Northbrook (1826–1904)
12 April 1876–8 June 1880 – Lord Lytton (1831–1891)
8 June 1880–13 December 1884 – Marquess of Ripon (1827–1909)
13 December 1884–10 December 1888 – Earl of Dufferin (1826–1902)
10 December 1888–11 October 1894 – Marquess of Lansdowne (1845–1927)
11 October 1894–6 January 1899 – Earl of Elgin (1849–1917)
6 January 1899–18 November 1905 – Lord Curzon of Kedleston (1859–1925)
May–June 1876 – Turkish suppression of rebellions in Bulgaria

May–August 1876 – Samuel Butler visits Faido (3 weeks), Mendrisio (month), Fusio, over Sassello Grande to Airolo, Piora (c. June 1876)

1 May 1876 – Queen Victoria declared empress of India

13 May 1876 – the Berlin Memorandum was circulated in the city of Berlin; Berlin Memorandum was drawn up by Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Germany to address the Eastern Question

16 May 1876 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum

28 May–3 August 1876 – Charles Darwin begins to write his “Recollections”; revised in April 1881

June 1876 – Arthur J. Evans publishes Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina on Foot during the Insurrection, August and September 1875

June–July 1876 – Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey

c. 18 June 1876 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife arrive back in Trieste

18 June 1876–19 February 1878 – Montenegrin–Ottoman War, which ends in Montenegrin victory

25–26 June 1876 – Battle of the Little Bighorn. Victory of the forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes (led by Crazy Horse and Chief Gall) against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army

30 June 1876–3 March 1878 – Serbo-Turkish War

10 July 1876 – Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Richard Wagner in Bayreuth

July 1876–March 1878 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Rose Hill, Dorking, Surrey

c. August 1876–1878 – the Great Famine of 1876–1878 in India (or Southern India Famine of 1876–1878 or the Madras famine of 1877), a famine in India beginning in 1876 and affecting Madras, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Bombay for two years

7 August–December 1876 – Heinrich Schliemann’s excavations at Mycenae

10 August 1876 – John Neville Keynes receives a telegram about his appointment to a Fellowship of Pembroke College, Cambridge (which he held from August 1876–12 August 1882)

12 August 1876 – Friedrich Nietzsche travels to Bayreuth to see the first performance of the Ring cycle; Kaiser Wilhelm also attends this

13 August 1876 – beginning of the famous 1876 Bayreuth Festival and performance of Wagner’s Das Rheingold, prelude of Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelungen) at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. The following plays are performed:
13 August 1876 – Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold)
14 August 1876 – Die Walküre (The Valkyrie)
16 August 1876 – Siegfried
17 August 1876 – Götterdämmerung (The Twilight of the Gods)
Marx arrives in Nuremberg at about 5 pm on 14 August and was unable to find accommodation in Nuremberg; he travels on to Weiden and arrives at midnight but finds no accommodation there either, because of the festival at Bayreuth; first Bayreuth Festival continues until 30 August 1876

16 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Siegfried premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

17 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods) premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

19 August 1876 – Marx writes a letter to Engels from Karlsbad calling the Bayreuth Festival “Wagner’s Festival of Fools”

August–September 1876 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa with his daughter Tussy

21 August 1876 – Benjamin Disraeli was created Earl of Beaconsfield

5 September 1876 – William Gladstone published The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East

6–12 September 1876 – Marx delayed in Karlsbad after his daughter Eleanor becomes ill with a fever

11 September 1876 – Amy Darwin, wife of Frank Darwin, dies of a fever after birth of Charles Darwin’s grandson

mid-September 1876 – Marx visits Max Oppenheim in Prague and then journeys the down the middle Rhine

21 September 1876 – Marx in Liège, Belgium

27 September 1876 – Theodore Roosevelt entered Harvard College; he graduated on 30 June 1880

October 1876 – William Stanley Jevons gives his first lecture as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London (from October 1876–May 1881); Jevons moves to The Chestnuts, Branch Hill, Hampstead Heath

October 1876–August 1881 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies at the University of Edinburgh Medical School; Arthur Conan Doyle meets the Scottish lecturer Joseph Bell in 1877, who is the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes

November 1876–August 1877 – Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition up the Lualaba river to the Congo River

November 1876 – Eugene Schuyler, the American Consul in Istanbul, publishes a report about the Bulgarian atrocities after his own investigation

30 November 1876 – Heinrich Schliemann opens the fifth of the Shaft Graves at Mycenae, and finds a tomb he believes to be that of Agamemnon; Schliemann reportedly sends a telegram to the king of Greece saying “I have gazed on the face of Agamemnon”

December 1876 – Bram Stoker gives a favourable review of Henry Irving’s Hamlet at the Theatre Royal in Dublin

3 December 1876 – Bram Stoker attends Henry Irving’s private reading of The Dream of Eugene Aram

23 December 1876–20 January 1877 – Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers (namely, Russia, Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy) held in Istanbul

1877
1877 – Edward A. Freeman publishes The Ottoman Power in Europe: Its Nature, its Growth, and its Decline by Macmillan

1877 – Samuel Butler’s art career wanes

January 1877 – Arthur Evans travels to Dalmatia as a correspondent of the Manchester Guardian

1 January 1877 – Lord Lytton holds a great Durbar in Delhi at which Lord Lytton proclaimed Queen Victoria as Empress of India

8 January 1877 – Crazy Horse and his Oglala Lakota warriors fight a last major battle at Wolf Mountain, Montana

January/February 1877 – Richard Francis Burton travels to Zagreb

March–April 1877 – Oscar Wilde’s trip to Italy and Greece; he visits Corfu, Zante, Olympia, Andritzena, Tripolitza, Argos, Nauplia, Aegina, Athens, Mycenae, Naples, and Rome 28/29

3 March 1877 – Richard Francis Burton leaves Trieste for Egypt

8 March–6 May 1877 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; Alexandria, Cairo (where he met the Khedive Isma’il Pasha); on 25 March the Khedive gives Burton permission to find gold in the Sinai; he goes to Zagazig, Suez (30 March), Wady Aynunah (4–9 April), Jebel el-Zahd, El-Muwaylah; last day in Arabia on 18 April; Suez (21 April); Cairo (until 27 April), and Alexandria

10 March 1877 – William Gladstone meets Charles Darwin at Downe house, with John Morley and Thomas Henry Huxley in attendance

22 March 1877 – Heinrich Schliemann gives a talk to the Society of Antiquaries on his excavations at Mycenae at Burlington House, London

24 March 1877 – death of Walter Bagehot

April 1877 – Oscar Wilde arrives at Oxford where he has been rusticated

16 April 1877 – Romania and Russia sign the treaty of Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory

24 April 1877–3 March 1878 – Russo-Turkish War

24 April 1877–3 March 1878 – the Romanian War of Independence, the Romanian participation in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), after which Romania obtained independence from the Ottoman Empire

mid-May–July 1877 – Samuel Butler visits Canton Ticino, Mendrisio

4 May–4 July 1877 – Edward A. Freeman with his two daughters visits Trieste, Corfu, Peloponnesus, Athens, Marathon, Tiryns, Argos, Larissa, Mykene, Nemea, Akrokorinthos, Patras, and Olympia. He returned via Zante, Ithaka, Corfu, Durazzo, Spalato, Traü, Zara, and Pola

12 May 1877 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Trieste from Egypt

22 May 1877 – the act officially declaring the full independence of Romania signed by Prince Carol I

mid-1877 – new buildings of Canterbury College, New Zealand, completed

June 1877 – Arthur Evans meets Edward Augustus Freeman in Ragusa

c. 14 June–July 1877 – Edward A. Freeman visits Dalmatia

18 June 1877 – Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant’s trial at the Old Bailey for a pamphlet on contraception

July 1877 – Alfred Marshall marries Mary Paley

25 July 1877–1883 – Alfred Marshall is Professor of Political Economy at Bristol University College; a hiatus from 1881–1882 while on holiday in Sicily

August–September 1877 – Marx, his wife Jenny and daughter Eleanor travel for a holiday to Neuenahr, a spa town in Rhenish Prussia

August 1877 – establishment of the Dogberry Club, a Shakespeare reading group

9 August 1877 – Henry Morton Stanley and his men reach the Portuguese outpost of Boma around 100 kilometres from the mouth of the Congo River on the Atlantic Ocean

11 August 1877 – the new building of the Otago Museum on 419 Great King Street was opened; the foundation was laid in December 1874; management of the museum passes to University of Otago in 1877; in 1955 a trust board becomes owner

autumn 1877 – Charles Darwin visits Abinger, North Downs

19 October 1877–12 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; possible trip to Karlsbad

17 October–12 November 1877 – Gladstone visits Ireland

17–18 November 1877 – Charles Darwin visits Cambridge university and given an honorary Doctorate of Laws

21 November 1877 – Thomas A. Edison announces the development of the phonograph

December 1877–May 1878 – Edward A. Freeman visits Italy and Sicily

6 December 1877 – first sound recording is made by Thomas Edison

7 December 1877 – Thomas A. Edison demonstrates the gramophone

6 December 1877–12 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt and on expedition to Midian; he leaves for Suez on 6 December; he sails from Suez on 10 December; on 19 December they land at El-Muwaylah; 21 December he leaves for Aynunah; Maghair Shu’ayb; Makna (25 January–2 February 1878); El-Akabah, South Midian, Shuwak, Ziba, El Wijh, El-Haura, Bada plain, El Wijh (5–12 April 1878), Suez (20 April 1878), Zagazig, Cairo (22 April–10 May 1878), Alexandria

20 December 1877–December 1880 – Heinrich Schliemann’s Trojan exhibition in London

1878
1878 – Richard Francis Burton publishes The Gold Mines of Midian and the Ruined Midianite Cities (C. Kegan Paul and Co.)

1878 – Andrew F. Crosse publishes Round about the Carpathians

1878–1882 – Arthur Evans in Ragusa, Casa San Lazzaro

March 1878 – Charles Darwin consults Dr Clark in London

March 1878 – William Stanley Jevons’ A Primer on Political Economy is published

March 1878 – Arthur Evans in Dubrovnik; he rents the Casa San Lazzaro

March 1878–1880 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Waldron Edge, Duppas Hill Lane, Croydon

3 March 1878 – the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano

1 April 1878 – the Salisbury Circular written by Lord Salisbury circulated to the Great Powers

2 April 1878–28 April 1880 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is UK Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

17 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife arrive in Trieste from Egypt

25 May 1878 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S. Pinafore first performed at the Opera Comique, London

26 May 1878 – the Turkish Sultan agrees to the Cyprus Convention

June 1878 – Oscar Wilde takes his final exams at Oxford

June 1878 – Sir Henry Morton Stanley’s Through the Dark Continent published

4 June 1878 – the Cyprus Convention, the secret agreement between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire which granted Cyprus to Great Britain in return for a guarantee against Russian aggression, is formally signed

13 June–13 July 1878 – Congress of Berlin

July 1878 – Engels published the Anti-Dühring (1878), which was first published in serial form from January 3 1877 to July 7 1878 in the journal Vorwärts

6 July 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife sail from Trieste for Liverpool

8 July 1878 – the British Daily Telegraph announced the Cyprus Convention

13 July 1878 – Treaty of Berlin signed at the Radziwill Palace in Berlin

16 July 1878 – Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury return to London greeted by cheering crowds from the Berlin Conference; they arrive at Dover at 2.40 p.m.

22 July 1878 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives in Cyprus in H. M. S. Himalaya and takes possession of Cyprus

27 July 1878–April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in England, with August trip to Ireland; London (October 1878)

August–September 1878 – Heinrich Schliemann excavated several sites on Ithaca

August 1878 – Samuel Butler in Sacro Monte, Locarno, Bignasco, Fusio, Tacino Valley, Faido

August 1878 – Friedrich Nietzsche publicly attacks Richard Wagner

12 August 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife travel by night mail to Dublin, Ireland; they meet Bram Stoker

31 August 1878 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving takes the lease of the Lyceum Theatre, London; the Irish writer Bram Stoker becomes his business manager in October

19 August 1878 – Richard Francis Burton gives a lecture on the land of Midian in Dublin

September–November 1878 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Troy

4 September 1878 – publication of second edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s book The Birth of Tragedy, or: Hellenism and Pessimism, which was prepared and printed in 1874

12 September 1878 – Lydia “Lizzie” Burns dies

c. September 1878–1 September 1880 – Second Anglo–Afghan War:
22 July 1878 – Russian envoys arrive in Kabul, capital of Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan
14 August 1878 – the British demand that Sher Ali accept a British mission
September 1878 – a British diplomatic mission on the way to Kabul is turned back near the east of the Khyber Pass; this triggers the Second Anglo–Afghan War
21 November 1878 – a British force of 50,000 invades Afghanistan at three different points
20 December 1878 – British advance to Jalalabad
26 May 1879 – the Treaty of Gandamak, signed by King Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan and Sir Louis Cavagnari, officially ends the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War; Afghanistan cedes frontier areas to Britain; the Durand Line forms the border between Afghanistan and the British Raj
24 July 1879 – British mission under Sir Louis Cavagnari arrives in Kabul
3 September 1879 – uprising in Kabul and slaughter of Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British representative, along with his guards and staff
6 October 1879 – Major General Sir Frederick Roberts leads the Kabul Field Force and defeats the Afghan Army at Char Asiab
8 October 1879 – Major General Sir Frederick Roberts occupies Kabul
December 1879 – uprising of 10,000 Afghans attacks British forces near Kabul in the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment
27 July 1880 – the Battle of Maiwand; the Afghan force of Ayub Khan defeats British and Indian troops under Brigadier-General George Burrows
1 September 1880 – the Battle of Kandahar, the last major conflict of the war and a decisive British victory, between British forces under Frederick Sleigh Roberts and Afghan forces led by Ayub Khan.
4–14 September 1878 – Marx is in Malvern, Worcester, with his wife, his daughter Jenny and his grandson

16 September 1878 – Engels leaves for Littlehampton (near Worthing)

19 September 1878 – Arthur Evans marries Margaret Freeman, daughter of the historian Edward Augustus Freeman, in England

20 September 1878 – Jenny Marx arrives in London

October 1878 – Arthur Evans and Margaret Freeman return to the Balkans to live in Ragusa

19 October 1878 – Anti-Socialist laws in Germany

November 1878 – Oscar Wilde graduates from Magdalen College, Oxford

25–26 November 1878 – James McNeill Whistler sues the critic John Ruskin, and wins

4 December 1878 – Florence Balcombe (1858–1937) and Bram Stoker married

9 December 1878 – Bram Stoker joins Henry Irving in Birmingham

30 December 1878 – Henry Irving revives the play Hamlet at the Lyceum with Ellen Terry as Ophelia

1879
1879 – Bram Stoker publishes his first book The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland

1879 – Richard Francis Burton publishes The Land of Midian (Revisited) (2 vols)

1879 – Julius von Haast publishes Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand

1879 – the University of Otago, New Zealand, moves to its modern site when the neo-Gothic Clocktower building was completed

1879 – Carl Menger appointed as chair of law and political economy at the University of Vienna (1879–1903)

1879 – Charles Paine Pauli making around 700–1,000 pounds a year from his law profession

11 January–4 July 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom

after January 1879 – Midlothian campaign

22 January 1879 – Battle of Isandlwana, first encounter of the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom

22–23 January 1879 – Battle of Rorke’s Drift, a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War. Around 150 British and colonial troops under the command of Lieutenant John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead successfully defended the mission station of Rorke’s Drift from 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors

February 1879 – Oscar Wilde moves into 13 Salisbury Street, London; Wilde applies for a ticket at the British Museum on 24 February 1879

8 February 1879 – Richard Francis Burton meets Bram Stoker in Grafton Street at Irving’s house; Stoker meets Burton again on 21 February 1879 at a party at Bailey’s Hotel, South Kensington

March–July 1879 – Heinrich Schliemann’s 1879 excavations at Troy

April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton travels to Hamburg, Berlin, and Leipzig

April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife return to Trieste

1 May 1879 – publication of Samuel Butler’s Evolution, Old and New

2 May 1879 – Friedrich Nietzsche resigns his position at the University of Basel with a pension

June 1879 – Charles Darwin spends a weekend in Dorking

26 June 1879 – the British and French governments force the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose Ismail Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt

26 June 1879–7 January 1892 – rule of Muhammed Tewfik Pasha (or Tawfiq of Egypt), Khedive of Egypt and the Sudan

27 June 1879 – Ellen Terry plays Henrietta Maria in the debut of the play Charles I at the Lyceum Theatre

4 July 1879 – Battle of Ulundi, last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War

August 1879 – Charles Darwin visits the Lake district with the Litchfields, and meets John Ruskin

August 1879 – Henry Irving takes a cruise to the Aegean in the steam vessel Walrus as a guest of Baroness Burdett-Coutts

c. 6 August–28 August 1879 – Engels and Carl Schorlemmer are on holiday in Eastbourne

8–20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx on holiday in St. Aubin’s and St. Helier, on the Isle of Jersey

18 August 1879 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Longuet gives birth to a son, Edgar, in Ramsgate

20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx leave Jersey

21 August–17 September 1879 – Marx arrived in Ramsgate to visit his daughter Jenny Marx and her new son Edgar

c. September 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife visit Gratz, Baden and Vienna

17 September 1879 – Marx returns to London

October 1879 – Alfred Marshall and Mary Paley Marshall publish The Economics of Industry (Macmillan, London)

October 1879 – Edward A. Freeman tours France, visiting Pontoise, Gisors, Chaumont, Gournay, and Neuchatel

21 October 1879 – Irish National Land League founded in Castlebar, with Charles Stewart Parnell elected president

1 November 1879 – Henry Irving’s production of The Merchant of Venice opened at the Lyceum; the famous Beefsteak Room dinners at the Lyceum begin

5 December 1879 – Richard Francis Burton sails for Egypt from Trieste

December 1879–May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt

21 December 1879 – Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark

December 1879–May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt

1880
1880 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth begins to be a lecturer in Logic at King’s College, London

1880–May 1881 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives in Pen-y-Bryn, St Peter’s Road, Croydon

2 January 1880 – Richard Francis Burton meets General Gordon in Cairo

14 February 1880 – famous banquet held to celebrate the 100th performance of Henry Irving’s play The Merchant of Venice

March–May 1880 – Engels published Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880)

31 March–27 April 1880 – United Kingdom general election of 1880:
Party | Seats Won
Liberal | 352
Conservative | 237
Home Rule | 63.
The Liberals win the election

3 April 1880 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Pirates of Penzance opens at at the Opera Comique

17 April 1880 – Arminius Vámbéry gives a lecture to the Royal Society of Arts in London on “Russian Influence in Central Asia”

23 April 1880–9 June 1885 – William Ewart Gladstone Prime Minister of Britain. UK Prime Ministers:
UK Prime Ministers
Liberal
23 April 1880–9 June 1885 – William Ewart Gladstone
Conservative
23 June 1885–28 January 1886 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
Liberal
1 February 1886–20 July 1886 – William Ewart Gladstone
Conservative
25 July 1886–11 August 1892 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
Liberal
15 August 1892–2 March 1894 – William Ewart Gladstone
5 March 1894–22 June 1895 – Archibald Primrose 5th Earl of Rosebery
Conservative
25 June 1895–11 July 1902 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
11 July 1902–5 December 1905 – Arthur Balfour
Liberal
5 December 1905–7 April 1908 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
7 April 1908–25 May 1915 – Herbert Henry Asquith.
by 11 May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton back in Trieste from Egypt

May–June 1880 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in Monfalcone and Ober Ammergau in Bavaria

20 May 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of Iolanthe at the Lyceum

June 1880 – Charles Darwin visits Southampton

July–August 1880 – Samuel Butler in S. Ambrogio, S. Pietro in the valley of Susa, monastery of Sammichele, Paget, in the neighbourhood of Lanzo, Viu, Fucine, and Groscavallo, Faido (joined by Henry Festing Jones in August)

July 1880 – amnesty in France; Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray returns to France on 4 July 1880

July 1880 – Oscar Wilde moves into 44 Tite Street, Chelsea, with Frank Miles

August 1880 – Charles Darwin visits Cambridge to visit his son Horace

September 1880 – Hall Caine first meets Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his home at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London

18 September 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of The Corsican Brothers opened at the Lyceum

October 1880 – William Stanley Jevons decides to resign as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London

1880s–1890s – the London season runs from after Christmas to c. late June; this coincides with sitting of Parliament

1880s
1881
1881–1884 – Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire in Ukraine and Poland)

1881–April 1882 – Hall Caine lives with Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his home at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London, and Caine acts as Rossetti’s secretary

January–June 1881 – Edward A. Freeman visits France, Italy, Ionia, and Dalmatia

3 January 1881 – Henry Irving’s production of Tennyson’s The Cup opened at the Lyceum; William Ewart Gladstone attends

24 January 1881 – William Ewart Gladstone introduced a Coercion Bill in the House of Commons, to deal with the Irish National Land League, with royal assent in March 1881

February 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London, and meets the Duke of Argyll

February 1881 – Samuel Butler at Shrewsbury; Butler has financial difficulties

13 March 1881 – death of Alexander II of Russia

13 March 1881–1 November 1894 – reign of Alexander III of Russia

19 April 1881 – death of Benjamin Disraeli

23 April 1881 – Major E. C. Johnson arrives in Athens, and later travels to Istanbul, Varna, Bucharest, Mehadia, Orsova, the Danube, Szegedin, Budapest, Aiud (Nagyenyed / Nagy-Enyéd), Târgu Mureș (Marosvásárhely), Brâncovenești (Vécs), Reghin (Szászrégen), Vécs, Beclean (Bethlen), Deés, Puszta, Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg / Kolozsvár), Budapest

23 April 1881 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s Patience first performed at the Opera Comique, London; the play moved to the famous Savoy Theatre on 10 October 1881

26 April 1881 – the Kiev pogrom of 1881 in Russia

28 April 1881 – Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty, but known as William H. Bonney) escapes from jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, United States, after being convicted of the murder of Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady

May 1881 – William Stanley Jevons resigns as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London

May 1881–June 1889 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at Nutwood Cottage which he had built at Godalming, Surrey

2 and 9 May 1881 – revival of Othello at the Lyceum

June 1881 – Charles Darwin visits the Lake district with his wife Emma and the Litchfields

7 June 1881 – first meeting of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), first socialist political party in Britain, organised
by H. M. Hyndman, and whose members included William Morris, George Lansbury and Eleanor Marx

18 June 1881 – the Three Emperors’ Alliance (June 1881–1887) between the German Empire, Russia, and Austria-Hungary is revived

July 1881 – Eleanor Marx decides to become an actress

14 July 1881 – Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty, but known as William H. Bonney) shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, United States

August 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London to sit for an oil painting

August–September 1881 – Marx and his wife visit Argenteuil near Paris

3 August 1881 – Charles Darwin dines with the Prince of Wales and the Crown Prince of Germany in London; Charles Bradlaugh ejected from the House of Commons

16 August 1881 – Marx gets a letter about his daughter Tussy’s break down, and returns to London

26 August 1881 – death of Erasmus “Eras” Darwin, Charles Darwin’s brother

1 September 1881 – funeral of Erasmus “Eras” Darwin at Downe churchyard

28 September 1881 – Charles Darwin has lunch with Ludwig Büchner and Edward Aveling at Down House

c. October 1881–August 1882 – Alfred Marshall and his wife Mary Marshall travel to Sicily, and visit Palermo, Florence, and Venice

October 1881 – Marx’s wife bedridden for weeks

7 October 1881–15 April 1882 – Edward A. Freeman visits America

10 October 1881 – the famous Savoy Theatre opened

November 1881 – Samuel Butler, Henry Festing Jones and Reginald Worsley travel to Midhurst, Pulborough, and Littlehampton

22 November 1881 – publication of Samuel Butler’s Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino

December 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London

2 December 1881 – Marx’s wife Jenny dies

5 December 1881 – Jenny Marx buried at Highgate cemetery

29 December 1881 – Marx and Tussy go to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight.

1882
1882–1883 – Heinrich Schliemann’s excavation at Troy

January 1882 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones go to Kingsdown (near Walmer) and Boulogne (to late January); Butler goes there nearly every Christmas until 1901

2 January 1882 – Oscar Wilde arrives in America

January 1882 – Eleanor Marx ends her engagement to Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray

February 1882 – Marx goes to Argenteuil with Eleanor Marx to see his daughter Jenny

15 February–late May 1882 – the voyage of the ship the Dunedin, which sails from Port Chalmers, Dunedin to London with refrigerated lamb and mutton; the first successful frozen meat shipment from New Zealand

20 February 1882 – Marx arrives in Algiers and spent 3 months there, with stopovers in Argenteuil and Marseille on the way

2 March 1882 – the Austro-Hungarian government issues a deportation notice to Arthur Evans in Dubrovnik, accusing him of being a spy

7 March 1882 – Charles Darwin has a heart seizure

7 March 1882 – Arthur Evans arrested in the port of Dubrovnik

7 March–23 April 1882 – Arthur Evans jailed at the prison at Ragusa (Dubrovnik), Dalmatia, by Austria-Hungary

8 March 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Romeo and Juliet at the Lyceum, with Ellen Terry as Juliet

27 March 1882 – the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) founded by Amelia Edwards and Reginald Stuart Poole at a meeting held in the British Museum; its purpose is to excavate Egypt and Sudan

9 April 1882 – death of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

19 April 1882 – death of Charles Darwin

26 April 1882 – state funeral of Charles Darwin at Westminster Abbey

early May 1882 – Marx leaves Algiers for France via Monte Carlo

26 May–29 August 1882 – beginning of the second Bayreuth Festival with Richard Wagner’s play Parsifal

summer 1882 – Marx in Artenteuil

June–13 September 1882 – the Anglo-Egyptian War between Egyptian forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi (or Ahmad Arabi) and the UK:
20 May 1882 – British and French warships arrive near Alexandria
11 June 1882 – anti-Christian riot in Alexandria kills 50 Europeans
11–13 July 1882 – British fleet bombards Alexandria and occupies the city
3 August 1882 – British army of 40,000 led by Garnet Wolseley invades the Suez Canal Zone
5 August 1882 – battle of Kafr El Dawwar between an Egyptian army and British forces headed by Sir Archibald Alison
8 August 1882 – troops from India and England arrive for weeks at Suez
15 August 1882 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives at Alexandria
20 August 1882 – British occupy Ismailia
13 September 1882 – Battle of Tell El Kebir (at the western end of Wadi Tumilat): Sir Garnet Wolseley attacks Egyptian forces at night near Tell El Kebir; Arabi flees to Cairo
14 September 1882 – British forces capture Cairo
15 September 1882 – Garnet Wolseley enters Cairo
October 1882 – British army begins to leave for England
June 1882 – Arthur Conan Doyle sets up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea, Portsmouth

30 June 1882 – Eleanor Marx attends the annual celebration of the Browning Society at University College London

July 1882–mid-August – Eleanor Marx goes to Artenteuil

31 July 1882 – Sigmund Freud begins clinical training at the General Hospital of Vienna

August–September 1882 – Samuel Butler goes to Paris, Turin, S. Pietro in the valley of Susa, near Turin; he sketches the Sanctuary of Sammichele; Aosta (September), Milan, Arona, Varese, Bergamo, Verona; he is joined by Henry Festing Jones from Aosta to Bergamo

August 1882 – Marx then went from Artenteuil to Vevey in Switzerland, then returning to London

August 1882 – Friedrich Nietzsche publishes The Gay Science

13 August 1882 – death of William Stanley Jevons whilst bathing near Hastings

15 August 1882 – John Neville Keynes marries Florence Ada Brown

13 September 1882 – Battle of Tell El Kebir (at the western end of Wadi Tumilat): Sir Garnet Wolseley attacks Egyptian forces at night near Tell El Kebir; Arabi flees to Cairo

14 September 1882 – British forces capture Cairo: British conquer Egypt

14 September 1882 – Bram Stoker attempts to save a man attempting suicide while on a Thames ferry

20 September 1882 – Rudyard Kipling sails for India

October 1882 – Marx returns to London

11 October 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing at the Lyceum; production continues until June 1883

11 October 1882 – Eleanor Marx goes to the Lyceum to see Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing

18 October 1882–9 March 1889 – Rudyard Kipling in India; from March to October 1889, he visits Japan and America

November 1882–January 1883 – Marx goes to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight

11 November 1882 – John Neville Keynes and Florence Ada Brown move into 6 Harvey Road, Cambridge

1883
1883 – Francis Galton publishes Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

1883–1884 – Alfred Marshall is Economics lecturer at Balliol College, Oxford

1883 – Carl Menger publishes Untersuchungen über die Methode der Sozialwissenschaften und der politischen Oekonomie insbesondere (Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences with Special Reference to Economics)

1883–1891 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen) is published

January 1883 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret move back to Oxford

6 January 1883 – Oscar Wilde arrives in Liverpool from his American tour

11 January 1883 – Marx’s daughter Jenny dies

11 January 1883 – Marx informed of the death of his daughter Jenny from cancer on Marx and returned to London

13 January 1883 – Marx returns to London from Ventnor?

13 February 1883 – death of Wilhelm Richard Wagner

February–mid-May 1883 – Oscar Wilde in Paris

spring 1883 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret Freeman travel to Greece and the Balkans, visiting Delphi, Arachova, Orchomenos, Athens, and Mycenae

14 March 1883 – Marx dies in London of bronchitis and pleurisy

17 March 1883 – Marx buried at Highgate cemetery, with 11 in attendance

21 March 1883 – death of Harry Longuet, grandson of Marx, who was buried at Highgate cemetery

27 March 1883 – death of John Brown, the Scottish personal servant and favourite of Queen Victoria

24 May 1883 – Eleanor Marx meets Beatrice Potter (later Beatrice Webb) in the Reading Room of the British Museum; Eleanor frequents the Reading Room

May 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes an article on the life of Marx in Progress magazine

June 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes “Karl Marx II,” Progress (June): 362–366

5 June 1883 – birth of John Maynard Keynes at 6 Harvey Road in Cambridge

15 June 1883 – Henry Irving’s production of Robert Macaire at the Lyceum

August 1883 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra I

August 1883 – Samuel Butler travels to Honfleur, Caen, Bayeux, Mont St. Michel, Lisieux, and returns by sea from Havre to London

26–27 August 1883 – the famous 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in the Dutch East Indies

September 1883 – Eleanor Marx goes on a holiday to Eastbourne with Engels and Helene “Lenchen” Demuth; after her return to London the Marx family home at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) is vacated and Eleanor moves into 122 Great Coram Street, Bloomsbury

September 1883–6 May 1907 – Evelyn Baring (1st Earl of Cromer) is 1st Consul-General of Egypt

October 1883 – socialist debating group that would become the Fabian Society formed in London

7 October 1883 – official Royal Ball of Inauguration at Peleș Castle near Sinaia, in Prahova County, Romania, of King Carol I

11 October 1883 – Henry Irving leaves Britain for his American tour

October 1883–April 1884 – Henry Irving’s first American tour:
21 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s press conference in the saloon of the Yosemite with Ellen Terry in New York harbour
29 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s American theatrical tour opens in New York with The Bells
26 November 1883 – Henry Irving’s American tour opens in Philadelphia
20 March 1884 – Henry Irving and Bram Stoker meet Walt Whitman
Washington, Baltimore, Toronto, Niagara Falls, Chicago, Boston
March 1884 – New York
29 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s American theatrical tour begins in New York

14 November 1883 – publication of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island

26 November 1883 – Henry Irving’s American tour opens in Philadelphia

winter 1883–1884 – Édouard Naville excavates Tell El Maskhuta in Egypt

1884
1884 – Carl Menger publishes Die Irrthümer des Historismus in der deutschen Nationalökonomie (The Errors of Historicism in German Economics)

1884 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra II

1884 – Joseph Hatton publishes the book Henry Irving’s Impressions of America

4 January 1884 – Fabian Society was founded in London

February 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman (father-in-law of Arthur Evans) is appointed Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford (1884–1892)

March 1884 – demonstration at Highgate Cemetery to commemorate the death of Marx

20 March 1884 – Henry Irving and Bram Stoker meet Walt Whitman

April 1884 – Henry Irving returns to Britain

10 April 1884 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra III

29 May 1884 – marriage of Oscar Wilde and Constance Lloyd

31 May–5 July 1884 – the comedy Much Ado About Nothing is played at the Lyceum theatre with Henry Irving and Ellen Terry

summer 1884–1887 – Theodore Roosevelt owns Elkhorn Ranch near the Little Missouri River, North Dakota

June 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling (1849–1898) decide to move in together

June 1884–1908 – Arthur Evans Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford

July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor join the launch of the Westminster branch of the Social Democratic Federation

July 1884 – International Health Exhibition Conference, London, at which Francis Galton sets up his anthropometric laboratory

8 July 1884 – opening of the play Twelfth Night; Or What You Will at the Lyceum theatre

8 July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor leave for a honeymoon in Middleton, Derbyshire

18 July 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into 55 Great Russell Street

August 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor elected to the Executive Council of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF)

c. August–September 1884 – Samuel Butler travels to Switzerland, Le Prese, Poschiavo, St. Moritz, Maloja pass, Promontogno in the Val Bregaglia, and Soglio

30 September 1884–April 1885 – Henry Irving’s second American tour:
30 September 1884 – Henry Irving’s second tour begins at the Opera House, Quebec
4 April 1885 – Henry Irving’s tour ends at the Star Theatre, New York
October 1884 – Friedrich Engels first published Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats (The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State)

October 1884 – Laura Marx visits Eleanor

15 October 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman delivers his inaugural lecture as Professor at Oxford

November 1884 – William Matthew Flinders Petrie arrives in Egypt to excavate Tanis

6 November 1884 – death of Henry Fawcett (26 August 1833–6 November 1884), Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge

late November 1884 – the showman Tom Norman begins exhibiting Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) at 123 Whitechapel Road; the doctor Frederick Treves sees Merrick

2 December 1884 – the doctor Frederick Treves presents Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) to the Pathological Society of London at 53 Berners Street, Bloomsbury

27 December 1884 – split in the Social Democratic Federation; William Morris, Belfort Bax, Eleanor Marx, and Edward Aveling resign and form the Socialist League on 29 December 1884, funded by William Morris

December 1884 – John Ruskin leaves Slade Professorship of Fine Arts in protest at vivisection in Oxford; resigns March 1885

1885
1885–1886 – Édouard Naville excavates in the Wadi Tumilat in Egypt

January 1885 – Alfred Marshall returns to Cambridge University as Professor of Economics

January 1885 – Socialist League starts its newspaper the Commonweal

26 January 1885 – defeat of General Gordon at the fall of Khartoum

18 February 1885 – Mark Twain published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

22 February 1885 – death of Eliza Mary Ann Savage, friend of Samuel Butler

24 February 1885 – Alfred Marshall gives his inaugural lecture on the “The Present Position of Economics” at Cambridge

4 March 1885 – Walter Pater’s philosophical novel Marius the Epicurean is published

14 March 1885 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado; or, The Town of Titipu opens at the Savoy Theatre

April 1885 – Arminius Vámbéry on a lecture tour in Britain

April 1885 – Henry Irving returns to Britain from his second American tour

18 April–5 June 1885 – Flinders Petrie excavates Naukratis in Egypt

9 June 1885 – William Gladstone leaves office as Prime Minister of Britain

23 June 1885–28 January 1886 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain

June 1885 – Eleanor Marx starts to become disenchanted with Edward Aveling

July 1885 – Friedrich Engels publishes volume 2 of Das Kapital in German

July 1885 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving and Bram Stoker visit Nuremburg in preparation for the production of Faust

August 1885 – Walter Pater moves to London to 12 Earls Terrace, Kensington from Oxford

August–October 1885 – Samuel Butler travels to San Bernardino, Bellinzona, Arona, Varallo-Sesia, Sacro Monte (Varese, where he was joined by Henry Festing Jones), Milan, Vicenza, Venice; Butler returns via Basel

12 September 1885 – Richard Francis Burton publishes 10 volumes of The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885–1888; though the Kama Shastra Society), a translation of the Arabian Nights

18 September 1885 – unification of Bulgaria

21 September 1885 – Eleanor Marx in court over political meeting at Dod Street

October 1885–March 1886 – Freud in Paris to study at the Salpêtrière hospital with Jean-Martin Charcot

28 October 1885 – William Matthew Flinders Petrie gives a lecture on Naukratis at the Annual General Meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund

7–29 November 1885 – Third Anglo-Burmese War

14–28 November 1885 – Serbo-Bulgarian War

19 December 1885 – opening night of the first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre of Henry Irving; production runs from 19 December 1885 to 31 July 1886

26 December 1885 – Eleanor Marx organises a charity Christmas for 200 children

28 December 1885 – Bram Stoker delivers his lecture “Personal Impressions of America” at the London Institution, Finsbury Circus London

1886
1886 – Friedrich Nietzsche first published Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy in Leipzig

1886 – Flinders Petrie excavates Tell Nebesheh in the Eastern Nile Delta for the Egypt Exploration Fund

1886–1889 – Édouard Naville excavates Bubastis

1 January 1886 – Britain annexed Upper Burma by Lord Randolph Churchill

January 1886 – Eleanor Marx Aveling publishes “The Woman Question: From a Socialist Point of View” (Westminister Review 125: 207–222)

5 January 1886 – publication of the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson

1 February 1886–20 July 1886 – William Gladstone is Prime Minister of Britain

March 1886–9 November 1888 – Sir Charles Warren (1840–1927) is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police

April 1886 – Sigmund Freud’s private medical practice opens

9 April 1886 – Joseph Chamberlain speaks to a group of Liberal Unionists opposing the Irish Home Rule Bill. The Liberal Unionist Association arises from this meeting

May 1886 – Heinrich Schliemann and William Dörpfeld visit Knossos

1 May 1886 – American workers demonstrate for an 8 hour day

4 May 1886 – opening of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 held in South Kensington in London; this was attended by Julius von Haast

summer 1886 – Edward Augustus Freeman stays at Exmouth from bad health

24 June 1886 – arrival of Joseph Merrick at Liverpool Street Station from Belgium

9 July 1886 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife attend supper in the Beefsteak Room in the Lyceum with Henry Irving and Bram Stoker after the play Faust

25 July 1886–11 August 1892 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain

25 July 1886 – performance of Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) at Bayreuth

31 July 1886 – end of first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

4 August 1886 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil

c. 14 August–September 1886 – Samuel Butler travels to Canton Ticino, Faido, Sacro Monte (Varese; in September where he was joined by Henry Festing Jones), Castiglione d’Olona, Mendrisio, Lignornetto, and Basel

31 August 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx leave Liverpool for an American trip

9 September 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx arrive in New York

11 September 1886 – beginning of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust at the Lyceum theatre; productions runs from
11 September to 22 April 1887

2 October 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor set out from New York on a 3 month speaking tour

28 October 1886 – statue of liberty unveiled

31 October 1886 – new edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s book The Birth of Tragedy, or: Hellenism and Pessimism (Die Geburt der Tragödie, Oder: Griechentum und Pessimismus), with a new preface called “An Attempt at Self-Criticism”

14 December 1886–6 April 1887 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily

20 December 1886 – Lord Randolph Churchill resigns as Chancellor of the Exchequer of the Tory government of Lord Salisbury

25 December 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor depart from New York

29 December 1886 – death of Samuel Butler’s father Thomas Butler; his inheritance ends Butler’s financial difficulties

1887
1887–1888 – the British Royal Commission on the Values of Gold and Silver

1887 – Édouard Naville excavates Tell el-Yahudiyeh and Saft el-Hinna

4 January 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor arrive in Liverpool from New York; they stay with Engels and move to 65 Chancery Lane

22 January 1887 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play Ruddigore; or, The Witch’s Curse opens at the Savoy Theatre

January 1887 – Friedrich Engels publishes an English translation of volume 1 of Das Kapital from the 1883 German third edition, translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (who had become the partner of Marx’s daughter Eleanor “Tussy” Marx in 1884)

March–April 1887 – Charles Stewart Parnell involved in the Pigott forgeries in The Times

March 1887 – Alfred Marshall publishes the “Remedies for Fluctuations in General Prices” in Contemporary Review

April 1887 – Samuel Butler travels to Ypres

22 April 1887 – end of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust

30 May 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor resign from the Socialist League

spring – Aveling and Eleanor move to Dodwell, Warwickshire

1 June 1887 – Henry Irving’s production of Werner at the Lyceum

18 June 1887 – Reinsurance Treaty signed, between Germany and Russia, organised by Otto von Bismarck after the German-Austrian-Russian League of the Three Emperors collapsed

20 June 1887 – the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated, to mark the 50th anniversary of her accession

24 June 1887 – publication of a new edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Gay Science

August–September 1887 – Samuel Butler in Varallo, Milan, Bergamo, Lago d’Iseo, Lovere, Ponte della Selva, Bergamo, Lecco, Colico, Chiavenna

16 August 1887 – death of Julius von Haast in Christchurch, New Zealand

October 1887 – Eleanor Marx returns to London from Dodwell

November 1887 – Tsar Alexander III visited Berlin

7 November 1887–26 March 1888 – Henry Irving’s third north American theatrical tour begins in New York:
7 November 1887–10 December 1887 – New York
12–23 December 1887 – Philadelphia
26 December 1887–21 January 1888 – Chicago
23 January 1888–18 February 1888 – Boston
20 February 1888–24 March 1888 – New York
8 November 1887 – government bans meetings in Trafalgar square

13 November 1887 – Bloody Sunday; demonstration towards Trafalgar square with Eleanor Marx and Aveling broken up by military and police

16 November 1887 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals

December 1887 – publication of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel A Study in Scarlet in Beeton’s Christmas Annual 1887 in which Sherlock Holmes appears for the first time; first published as a book in July 1888

December 1887–January 1888 – Samuel Butler in Boulogne, Basel, Luino, Varallo, Milan

1888
1888–1890 – Heinrich Schliemann’s last excavation at Troy

1888 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed as Tooke Professor of Political Economy, King’s College, London (1888–1891)

16 January 1888 – Alfred Marshall appears before the British “Royal Commission on the Value of Gold and Silver” (instituted in 1887) and questioned about the economic conditions of the 1870s and 1880s in Britain

9 February 1888 – Frederick III, soon to become German emperor, underwent a tracheotomy for throat cancer

9 March 1888 – the death of the German Emperor Wilhelm I (king of Prussia from 2 January 1861)

9 March 1888–15 June 1888 – reign of the German Emperor Frederick III

11 March–14 March 1888 – the Great Blizzard of 1888 on the eastern coast of the United States of America

26 March 1888 – Henry Irving sailed for England after the end of his third north American theatrical tour

14 April 1888 – revival of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

15 April 1888 – death of Matthew Arnold

17 April 1888–December 1892 – Winston Churchill was sent to Harrow School

April 1888 – Beatrice Potter (later Webb) works in an East End tailoring sweatshop

15 June 1888 – Wilhelm II becomes German Emperor

summer – Eleanor Marx in Dodwell, Warwickshire

23 July 1888 – performance of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) at Bayreuth

August–September 1888 – Samuel Butler in Dinant, Namur, Varallo, Bergamo, Verona, Padua, Venice, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Varallo, Crevacuore

4 August 1888 – opening of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre with the actor Richard Mansfield

9 August 1888 – Engels leaves for New York, with Aveling and Eleanor; they travel to Albany, Boston, Niagara falls, lake Ontario, Toronto, Montreal

August–September 1888 – Engels in America

31 August–9 November 1888 – period of the infamous Jack the Ripper murders

August 1888–1901 – Sir Robert Anderson (1841–1918) is Assistant Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police

19 September 1888 – Engels, Aveling and Eleanor return to England

29 September 1888 – closing of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre in the wake of Jack the Ripper murders

29 September 1888–12 June 1891 – Mahatma Gandhi studied law and jurisprudence in London at the Inner Temple

3 October 1888 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Yeomen of the Guard opens at the Savoy Theatre

17 November 1888–27 April 1889 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily

29 December 1888 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum theatre

1889
1889 – Alfred Russel Wallace publishes Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection

3 January 1889 – Friedrich Nietzsche suffers a mental collapse in the streets of Turin

24 January 1889 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Twilight of the Idols

30 January 1889 – Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, and his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera commit suicide at the Mayerling hunting lodge, Vienna Woods, Austria

26 April 1889 – Henry Irving gives a command performance for the Prince of Wales and Queen Victoria at Sandringham

26 April 1889 – Arminius Vámbéry first meets Bram Stoker at Sandringham during the performance of The Bells and The Merchant of Venice for Queen Victoria

6 May–31 October 1889 – Exposition Universelle of 1889 in Paris

15 May 1889 – Eiffel Tower officially opened to the public

June 1889–December 1902 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at Corfe View, Parkstone, Dorset

7 June 1889 – first performance of Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House at the Novelty theatre in Britain

29 June 1889 – end of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum

July–September 1889 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Volterra, Siena, Monte Oliveto (3 August), San Gimignano, Colle di Val d’Elsa, Pisa, Chivasso, Biella, Oropa, San Giovanni di Andorno, Varallo (joined by Henry Festing Jones), Oropa, Varese, Faido, Basel

6 July 1889 – beginning of the Cleveland Street scandal

14 July 1889 – Second International (1889–1916) founded; Second International declared May 1 to be “May Day” (International Workers’ Day); Eleanor Marx in Paris

14 August 1889–16 September – London Dock Strike

September–14 December 1889 – Silvertown strike in London

28 September 1889 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of The Dead Heart at the Lyceum theatre

5 October 1889 – Rudyard Kipling arrives back in England

October 1889–December 1890 – the 1889–1890 flu pandemic, with recurrences March–June 1891, November 1891–June 1892, spring 1893 and winter 1893–1894

October 1889 – the Tsar Alexander III of Russia visited Wilhelm II in Berlin

late 1889 – Eleanor Marx speaks at the International Working Men’s Club (IWMC) at 40 Berner Street

9 November 1889–May 1890 – Indian tour of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

November 1889 – Wilhelm II visited Franz Joseph, the Austrian Emperor

7 December 1889 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Gondoliers; or, The King of Barataria opens at the Savoy Theatre

10 December 1889 – Mark Twain published A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court in the United States

1889–1890 – Great Eastern broken up for scrap at Rock Ferry on the River Mersey by Henry Bath and Son

1890
6 February–8 May 1890 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily, Tunis and Carthage

18 March 1890 – at the request of Wilhelm II, Bismarck resigned and was replaced by General von Caprivi

11 April 1890 – death of Joseph Merrick at London Hospital

13 April 1890 – Lloyd George elected as Liberal MP for Carnarvon Boroughs

30 April 1890 – Arminius Vámbéry attends the play The Dead Heart at the Lyceum; he stays for dinner at the Beefsteak Room with Bram Stoker and Irving

30 April 1890 – Bram Stoker called to the bar of the Inner Temple

May 1890 – Friedrich Nietzsche is released into the care of his mother in Naumburg

4 May 1890 – May day demonstration in Hyde Park, London

5 May 1890 – W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan end their collaboration

June 1890 – Vincent van Gogh paints the oil painting The Church at Auvers

July–August 1890 – Samuel Butler in Furnes, Dinant, Namur, Basel, Goeschenen, Saas Fée, Domodossola, Varallo, Biella, Oropa, Lenno, Mendrisio, Faido, Basel, London

July 1890 – Alfred Marshall’s Principles of Economics first published

July 1890 – Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray first published

July 1890 – Engels in Norway

29 July 1890 – death of Vincent van Gogh

August 1890 – the novelist Bram Stoker takes a famous holiday at Whitby

1 August 1890 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Athens from Troy

6 August 1890 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx set sail for Norway for a 3 week tour

20 September 1890 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Ravenswood at the Lyceum theatre

October 1890 – Eleanor Marx travels to the Lille congress of the French Workers’ Party

October 1890 – Bertrand Russell goes up to Trinity College, Cambridge

20 October 1890 – death of Richard Francis Burton in Trieste

November 1890 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed secretary of the British Economic Association and appointed editor of the Economic Journal

November 1890 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Halle, Germany, to have an ear operation

November 1890–1894 – William Jennings Bryan serves in the US House of Representatives for Nebraska

4 November 1890 – death of Helene “Lenchen” Demuth

17 November 1890 – Captain W. H. O’Shea obtains a decree nisi of divorce against his wife Katharine O’Shea; this ruins the political career of Parnell

26 December 1890 – death of Heinrich Schliemann in Naples

December 1890 – Thomas Henry Huxley moves to Eastbourne

December 1890–24 March 1891 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies ophthalmology in Vienna

1890s
1891
1891–1892 – Flinders Petrie excavates Amarna

January 1891 – John Neville Keynes publishes The Scope and Method of Political Economy

31 January 1891 – famous Royal English Opera House opened (renamed the Palace Theatre of Varieties in 1892)

21 February 1891 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed to the Drummond chair of Political Economy, Oxford, and chosen as a fellow of All Souls (1891–1922)

25 June 1891 – first story of Arthur Conan Doyle’s character Sherlock Holmes published in The Strand Magazine

June 1891 – first meeting of Lord Alfred Douglas (1870–1945) and Oscar Wilde

June 1891 – Mark Twain and his family move to Europe and live there until 1895; Twain lived in France, Germany, and Italy; in Berlin in winter 1891–1892; Florence in fall and winter 1892–1893; and Paris in winter and spring 1893–1894 and 1894–1895

July–October 1891 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Seelisberg, Como, Chiavenna, Bormio, Bolladore, Sondrio, Colico, Varese, Laveno, Arona, Varallo-Sesia, Casale, Certosa di Pesio, Mondovì, Turin, Varallo, Faido

22 August 1891 – performance of Tannhäuser at Bayreuth

22 August 1891–10 January 1892 – Rudyard Kipling visits South Africa, New Zealand (18 October–6 November), Australia, Ceylon (early December), India

September–12 December 1891 – Henry Irving and the Lyceum company undertake a tour of the provinces

6 October 1891 – death of Charles Stewart Parnell

winter 1891–1892 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret visit Italy

1892
1892 – Max Nordau’s book Degeneration first published in German; English edition in 1895

1892 – John Neville Keynes becomes Secretary for Local Examinations, then member of the Council of the Senate; 1910 Registrary

5 January 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Henry VIII at the Lyceum theatre

14 January 1892 – death of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

18 January 1892 – Carrie Balestier and Rudyard Kipling married in London

30 January 1892 – Samuel Butler gives a lecture on “The Humour of Homer” at the Working Men’s College, Great Ormond Street, London

February–16 March 1892 – Edward Augustus Freeman in Spain

2 February 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to the US; visits New York, Chicago and the Rocky mountains

22 February 1892 – Oscar Wilde’s play Lady Windermere’s Fan, A Play About a Good Woman first produced at the St James’s Theatre in London

16 March 1892 – death of Edward Augustus Freeman, English historian, liberal politician and father-in-law of Arthur Evans, in Alicante, Spain

26 March 1892 – death of Walt Whitman

20 April–c.9 June 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to Japan

June–September 1892 – Samuel Butler in Novara, Varallino, Varallo, Casale-Monferrato, Genoa, Pisa, Rome, Naples, Palermo (Sicily), Trapani, Monte Erice, I Runzi (4 August 1892), Palermo (from 23 August 1892), Catania, Mount Etna, Messina, Naples, Cava, Paestum, Naples, Rome (30 August 1892), Cortona, Florence, Varese (joined by Henry Festing Jones)

June 1892–29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife live in America

4–26 July 1892 – the 1892 United Kingdom general election; the Liberal Unionists under the leadership of Joseph Chamberlain won 46 seats. The UK Conservatives under Lord Salisbury did not win a majority, but were defeated in a vote of no confidence on 11 August 1892. William Gladstone formed a minority government in coalition with the Irish Nationalists

5–8 July 1892 – Arminius Vámbéry given a Degree at the Tercentenary of Dublin University; he gives a speech heard by Bram Stoker

23 July 1892 – marriage of Sidney Webb and Beatrice Potter

15 August 1892 – William Gladstone becomes British Prime Minister

October 1892–September 1893 – Jules Verne’s Le Château des Carpathes (The Carpathian Castle) published in English

6 October 1892 – death of Alfred Tennyson

10 November 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Lear at the Lyceum theatre

December 1892 – Winston Churchill left Harrow

1893
14–16 January 1893 – foundation conference of the Independent Labour Party

6 February 1893 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Becket at the Lyceum theatre

February 1893 – Winston Churchill sent to a “crammer” school in London to pass entrance examination for Sandhurst

February 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in French

26 February 1893 – Philadelphia and Reading Railroad goes bankrupt, which later triggers the US Panic of 1893

April 1893 – Samuel Butler in Brussels and Dinant

19 April 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play A Woman of No Importance opens at London’s Haymarket Theatre

11 March 1893 – Arthur Evans’ wife dies

May 1893–1915 – Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa

1 May 1893–30 October 1893 – World’s Columbian Exposition, world’s fair held in Chicago in 1893

5 May 1893 – Black Friday in the US, the disastrous crash of the New York Stock Exchange; Panic of 1893

summer 1893 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

summer 1893 – Walter Pater moves back to Oxford

summer 1893 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry take a holiday in Canada; proceed to San Fancisco

July–c. 17 October 1893 – Samuel Butler in Basel, San Gottardo, Casale, Rome, then visited cities between Rome and Naples, Sora, Arpino, Veroli, Alatri, Ferentino, Segni, Cori, Aci Reale, Siracusa, Palermo, Trapani (August), Calatafimi, Trapani, Marsala, Palermo, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Casale

6–13 August 1893 – the Zurich Socialist and Labour Congress, the 3rd congress of the Second International. Friedrich Engels gave a closing address; Eleanor Marx attends

16 August 1893 – death of Jean-Martin Charcot

1 September 1893 – Churchill enters Royal Military College, Sandhurst

September 1893 – Lenin moved to Saint Petersburg

4 September 1893–21 March 1894 – Henry Irving’s 4th American tour; opened in San Francisco with The Bells, and includes Chicago, Seattle, Portland, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston, New York

8 September 1893 – the Government of Ireland Bill 1893 (or Second Home Rule Bill) was rejected by the House of Lords on its third reading. The Bill had been passed in the House of Commons on 1 September 1893 by 301 votes in favour to 267 against

13–29 October 1893 – Russian fleet visits French port of Toulon, a sign of the growing Franco-Russian military alliance

December 1893–February 1894 – Lord Alfred Douglas in Egypt

December 1893 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s story “The Adventure of the Final Problem” in which Sherlock Holmes dies is published in The Strand Magazine

27 December 1893 – Franco-Russian military alliance ratified

1894
1894 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book

February 1894 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in English, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley

2 March 1894 – William Gladstone leaves office as British Prime Minister

19 March 1894 – Arthur Evans first visits Knossos on Crete

21 March 1894 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry return to England after their 4th American tour

14 April 1894 – revival of Faust by Henry Irving at the Lyceum

April–August 1894 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife visit England on a holiday

c. 19 April 1894 – the future Tsar Nicholas II and his uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich travel to Coburg, Germany to attend the wedding of Ernest Louis (Grand Duke of Hesse) and Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The other guests were Queen Victoria, Kaiser Wilhelm II and his mother, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

August–October 1894 – Oscar Wilde spends a summer holiday in Worthing where he writes The Importance of Being Earnest

June 1894 – Bertrand Russell graduates from Cambridge

20 July–20 September 1894 – Samuel Butler in Casale, Rome, Naples, Messina, Aci Reale, Etna, Catania, Aci Reale, Castrogiovanni, Palermo, Trapani, Mount Eryx (22 August 1894), Castelvetrano, Poggio Reale, Calatafimi, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Rosignano

20 July 1894 – performance of Lohengrin at Bayreuth

30 July 1894 – death of Walter Pater

summer 1894 – Bram Stoker takes a second holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

August 1894 – Engels on holiday in Eastbourne suffers a stroke

1 August 1894–17 April 1895 – First Sino-Japanese War between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, over control of Korea; Japanese victory

September 1894 – publication of The Green Carnation by Robert Hichens, a parody of Oscar Wilde

21 September to 8 December 1894 – provincial tour of Henry Irving; first production of Henry Irving’s A Story of Waterloo played at the Princes Theatre, Bristol, on September 21, 1894; London performance at the Garrick Theatre on 17 December 1894

October 1894 – the third volume of Das Kapital published by Engels

1 November 1894 – Tsar Alexander III dies

1 November 1894 – accession of Nicholas II of Russia (reign: 1 November 1894–15 March 1917)

26 November 1894 – marriage of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Alix of Hesse (Alexandra Feodorovna)

28 November 1894 – final birthday of Engels

13 December 1894 – marriage of Bertrand Russell and Alys Pearsall Smith in London

25 December 1894 – Eleanor Marx has Christmas dinner with Engels and is assured she will inherit Marx’s manuscripts

December 1894 – Winston Churchill graduated from Royal Military College, Sandhurst

December 1894 – treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for allegedly sharing French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris

1895
1895–1897 – Theodore Roosevelt became president of the board of the New York City Police Commissioners for two years

January–July 1895 – H. G. Wells’s Time Machine first published

3 January 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play An Ideal Husband opens at the Haymarket Theatre

12 January 1895 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Arthur at the Lyceum theatre

24 January 1895 – death of Randolph Churchill

4 February 1895 – début of The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde at the St James’s Theatre

14 February 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People opens at St James's Theatre in London

20 February 1895 – Winston Churchill commissioned as officer and joins the 4th Hussars, a cavalry regiment

March 1895 – Aveling and Eleanor travel to Hastings for a holiday

30 March–June 1895 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Florence, Rome, Naples, Brindisi (left for Corfu on 13 April), Corfu, Patras, Athens (from 17 April), Mycenae, Argos, Nauplia, Corinth, Athens, left Piraeus 27 April, Smyrna, Troy, Inra (3 May 1895), Smyrna (8 May), Catania, Aci Reale (13 May 1895), Palermo, Trapani, Calatafimi, Palermo, Naples, Rome, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Varallo, Basel, London (early June)

3 April 1895 – opening of the libel trial of the Marquess of Queensberry

17 April 1895 – Treaty of Shimonoseki between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire; Taiwan ceded to Japan as well as the Liaodong Peninsula (which was subsequently acquired by Russia)

23 April 1895 – Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention, diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France which forced Japan to withdraw from the Liaodong Peninsula

4 May 1895 – performances of The Story of Waterloo and Don Quixote at the Lyceum

25 May 1895 – announcement of Henry Irving’s knighthood

25 May 1895 – Oscar Wilde convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour

June 1895 – Engels, Laura Marx and Eleanor take a holiday in Eastbourne

21 June 1895 – Lord Rosebery resigns as British Prime Minister

29 June 1895 – death of Thomas Henry Huxley

July 1895 – Mark Twain begins his around-the-world lecture tour. He went to north America and British Columbia, Canada from July–August 1895. Twain then went to Fiji, New Zealand (5 November–December 1895), Australia (17 December 1895–1 January 1896), Sri Lanka, India, Mauritius, and South Africa. Twain returns to England in July 1896

1 July 1895 – Eleanor and Edward Aveling start a holiday in Orpington in Kent

18 July 1895 – Henry Irving knighted at Windsor Castle

c. 21 July 1895 – Eleanor Marx learns that Frederick Lewis Demuth (1851−1929) is the son of Karl Marx

c. August 1895 – Samuel Butler in San Gottardo at Wassen, Hospenthal, Bellinzona in Switzerland

5 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels dies

10 August 1895 – funeral of Friedrich Engels

27 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels’ ashes scattered at sea off Eastbourne

16 September 1895–May 1896 – Henry Irving’s 5th American tour; opened in Montreal with Faust, and includes New Orleans, Philadelphia, Chicago

October 1895 – Bertrand Russell receives a 5-year fellowship from Trinity College, Cambridge

November 1895 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Second Jungle Book

November–December 1895 – Churchill visits America and Cuba

14 December 1895 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into a new house in Sydenham

29 December 1895–2 January 1896 – the Jameson Raid, a failed raid on Paul Kruger’s Transvaal Republic by British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his troops

1896
1896 – Édouard Naville excavates Oxyrhynchus

April–May 1896 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Casale, Florence, Cortona, Rome, Frosinone, Naples, Pompeii, Salerno, Roggio, Etna, Messina, Aci Reale, Siracusa, Catania, Palermo, Calatafimi, Messina, Reggio, Salerno, Rome, Pisa, Genoa, Casale-Monferrato, Lucerne, Lugano, Porlezza, San Salvatore, Luino, Locarno, Lucerno, Basel

6–15 April 1896 – the 1896 Summer Olympics, the first international Olympic Games held in modern history, organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), held in Athens, Greece

May 1896 – Henry Irving returns to England from his 5th American tour

26 May 1896 – Tsar Nicholas II’s formal coronation in Uspensky Cathedral within the Kremlin

8 June 1896 – Eleanor Marx, Edward Aveling and Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919) visit Marx’s old houses in London

July 1896 – Mark Twain sails back to England from his world tour

July 1896 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

7–11 July 1896 – US Democratic National Convention of 1896, held at the Chicago Coliseum

9 July 1896 – William Jennings Bryan delivered his “Cross of Gold” speech at the US Democratic National Convention in Chicago

26 July–1 August 1896 – International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress, held in London, the 4th congress of the Second International

16 August 1896 – gold was discovered in the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada by local miners

August 1896–1899 – the Klondike Gold Rush, a migration of about 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada after gold was discovered there by local miners on 16 August 1896; when the news reached Seattle and San Francisco in 1897, there was a gold stampede from 1897–1898

29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife return to England from the US

September 1896 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Wassen and Basel

22 September 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Cymbeline at the Lyceum theatre

1 October 1896 – Winston Churchill arrives in Bombay, India and travels with his regiment to Bangalore

3 November 1896 – United States presidential election of 1896; William McKinley (Republican candidate) defeated William Jennings Bryan (Democrat candidate)

19 December 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s Richard III at the Lyceum; Irving injuries himself after the play and Lyceum closes until 25 January 1897

1897
1897–1898 – Theodore Roosevelt is Assistant Secretary of the US Navy

January 1897 – foundation of Dawson City by Joseph Ladue; the town was the centre of the Klondike Gold Rush

February 1897 – Lenin sentenced to 3 years exile in eastern Siberia

February 1897–February 1900 – Lenin in Siberia

18 May 1897 – Oscar Wilde released from prison

26 May 1897 – publication of Bram Stoker’s Dracula

5 April–8 May 1897 – the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 (or the Thirty Days’ War), a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, caused by the status of the Ottoman province of Crete; there was a decisive Ottoman military victory

16 April–May 1897 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Sicily; in Girgenti and Selinunte; they return via Casale, San Pietro, Bellinzona, Wassen

8 June 1897 – Edward Aveling secretly married the actress Eva Frye

22 June 1897 – Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee procession

July 1897 – Keynes undergoes Eton College Scholarship Examinations

August 1897 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

after 22 August 1897 – Edward Aveling abandons Eleanor Marx, but returns some days later

c. September 1897 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Paris to see Laura Marx

September 1897 – John Maynard Keynes began study at Eton; educated at Eton from 1897–1902

16 September 1897 – Winston Churchill present on a cavalry patrol in India which is ambushed in the Mamund Valley

25 September 1897 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to Rottingdean, East Sussex

October 1897–May 1899 – Mark Twain lives in Europe, in England and Austria

November 1897 – Samuel Butler published The Authoress of the Odyssey

December 1897 – Edward Aveling ill with the flu

15 December 1897 – Charles Paine Pauli dines at Clifford’s Inn with Samuel Butler for the last time

29 December 1897 – death of Charles Paine Pauli

1898
January 1898 – H. G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds first published; first published as a serial in Pearson’s Magazine April to December 1897

1 January 1898 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Peter the Great at the Lyceum theatre

January 1898 – Edward Aveling asks Ellen Terry for a loan

9 February 1898 – Edward Aveling has surgery at University College Hospital

c. 18 February 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Margate

18 February 1898 – disastrous fire at the Lyceum storage area

27 March 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx return to their house in Sydenham

31 March 1898 – death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

2 April 1898 – inquest on the death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

5 April 1898 – funeral of Eleanor Marx Aveling

6 April–May 1898 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Sicily; they go to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Varallo, Casale, Camino, Avvocato Negri, Florence, Naples, Salerno, Messina, Taormina, Trapani, Messina, Naples, Rome, Genoa, Turin, Casale-Monferrato, Basel

25 April–12 August 1898 – Spanish–American War

19 May 1898 – death of William Ewart Gladstone at Hawarden Castle, Hawarden, at the age of 88

June 1898 – Winston Churchill leaves India

July 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in London from India

30 July 1898 – death of Otto von Bismarck

1898 – publication of Marx’s Value, Price and Profit (a series of lectures Marx delivered in 1865)

summer 1898 – Henry Irving begins his relationship with Elizabeth Aria

25 August 1898 – Turkish mob massacres hundreds of Cretan Greeks, the British Consul and 17 British soldiers; Turkish forces were expelled from the island by the Great Powers in November 1898

2 August 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in Cairo

2 August 1898 – death of Edward Aveling

2 September 1898 – Battle of Omdurman, with Winston Churchill present in the army of Sir Herbert Kitchener

16–27 September 1898 – Samuel Butler goes to Amsterdam to a Rembrandt exhibition, Haarlem, the Hague

12 October 1898 – death of William J. M. Larnach in a committee room at the New Zealand Parliament

13 October 1898 – Henry Irving stricken at Glasgow with pleurisy and pneumonia while playing Madame Sans Gene

November 1898 – Turkish forces expelled from Crete by the Great Powers in November 1898; an autonomous Cretan State established

10 December 1898 – the Treaty of Paris of 1898 between Spain and the US; the US gained Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; the Treaty became effective on 11 April 1899

1899
1 January 1899–31 December 1900 – Theodore Roosevelt 33rd Governor of New York State

March–late May 1899 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Italy; they go to Basel, Lucerne, Fluelen, Casale-Monferrato, Varallo-Sesia, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, Florence, Forli, Ravenna, Padua, Venice, Verona, Bergamo, Milan, Turin, Sammichele, Mont Cenis, Paris

March 1899 – Winston Churchill departs India

18 May–29 July 1899 – Hague Convention of 1899

31 March 1899 – Henry Irving surrenders the lease of Lyceum theatre to a syndicate

October 1899–May 1900 – Henry Irving’s 6th American tour

12 October 1899 – the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics begins

14 October 1899 – Winston Churchill leaves England for South Africa to report on the Anglo-Boer War as correspondent for the Morning Post

15 November–12 December 1899 – capture and imprisonment of Winston Churchill; imprisoned in a POW camp in Pretoria

1900
20 January 1900 – death of John Ruskin

February 1900 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Harwich

23 March 1900–1903 – Arthur Evans’ excavations on Knossus

April–12 June 1900 – Samuel Butler meets Henry Festing Jones in Genoa; Butler goes to Basel, Genoa, Casale, Pisa, Rome, Segni, Salerno, Paestum, Reggio, Messina, Taormina, Siracusa (2 May 1900), Malta, Siracusa, Palermo, Calatafimi, Albergo Centrale, Trapani, Palermo, Naples, Rome (20 May), Siena, Sammichele, Casale-Monferrato, Basel, London (12 June)

4–6 July 1900 – US Democratic National Convention of 1900, held at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri; William Jennings Bryan gave a speech called “Imperialism”

29 July 1900 – Lenin left Russia for Western Europe

25 August 1900 – death of Friedrich Nietzsche

September 1900 – Samuel Butler in Wassen

October 1900 – Mark Twain returns to America

October 1900 – Samuel Butler’s translation of the Odyssey published

November 1900–April 1901 – Samuel Butler writes Erewhon Revisited

22 November 1900 – death of Arthur Sullivan

30 November 1900 – death of Oscar Wilde

1901
22 January 1901 – death of Queen Victoria

22 January 1901–6 May 1910 – reign of Edward VII

March–September 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt is Vice President of the United States under William McKinley (president from 4 March 1897–14 September 1901)

April–24 June 1901 – Samuel Butler travels to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Pisa (where he joins Henry Festing Jones in May), Rome, Naples, Palermo, Trapani, Palermo, Catania, Taormina, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Ancona, Pesaro, Rimini, Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Casale-Monferrato, London

summer 1901 – Bram Stoker attends the Wagner Cycle at Bayreuth?

22 July 1901 – première of Richard Wagner’s play Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) at Bayreuth

August 1901–April 1902 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles serialised in The Strand Magazine

September 1901 – Samuel Butler in Basel and Wassen

14 September 1901–4 March 1909 – Theodore Roosevelt is 26th President of the United States

11 October 1901 – Samuel Butler publishes Erewhon Revisited

1902
28 March–19 May 1902 – Samuel Butler travels to Paris, Casale-Monferrato, Rome, Naples, Palermo (12 April), Naples (11 May), Calis, London (19 May)

April 1902–April 1903 – Lenin moved to London

18 June 1902 – death of Samuel Butler at a nursing home in St John’s Wood Road, London

21 June 1902 – Samuel Butler’s funeral near Woking; his ashes buried at Woking

19 July 1902 – Henry Irving’s farewell performance at the Lyceum

2 September 1902 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to a home called Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

December 1902–7 November 1913 – Alfred Russel Wallace moves to a small house called the Old Orchard at Parkstone in Dorset

1903
1903 – the posthumous publication of Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh

April 1903 – Lenin and his wife left London for Switzerland

30 April 1903 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Dante at the Theatre Royal

October 1903–March 1904 – Henry Irving’s 8th American tour

17 December 1903 – the first airplane flight near at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina of the Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air machine, by the Wright brothers

1904
8–9 February 1904 – Japanese fleet under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō attacks Russian fleet at Port Arthur, Korea

8 February 1904–5 September 1905 – Russo-Japanese War between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea; Russian defeat

8 November 1904 – United States presidential election of 1904; Theodore Roosevelt (who succeeded McKinley in September 1901) elected in his own right

winter 1904 – Henry Irving’s final provincial tour

1905
22 January 1905 – unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg, Russia led by Father Georgy Gapon fired on by soldiers as they marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II

22 January 1905–16 June 1907 – Russian Revolution of 1905

13 October 1905 – death of Sir Henry Irving

20 October 1905 – public funeral of Sir Henry Irving

1906
1906 – Bram Stoker suffers a stroke

1907
1907 – Bram Stoker moves to 4 Durham Place from 18 St Leonard’s Terrace

November 1906 – The Vicar of Wakefield opens at the Prince of Wales Theatre; Stoker is business manager

1908
9 June 1908 – King Edward VII of England meets Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on the Russian Imperial Yacht Standart in the Bay of Reval

July 1908 – the Young Turk Revolution of the Ottoman Empire; this restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and created multi-party politics in the Ottoman parliament

5 October 1908 – de jure independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire proclaimed in Tarnovo by Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria (who then took the title of “Tsar”)

6 October 1908 – Austria-Hungaria publishes the annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina proclamation

1909
1909 – Arthur Conan Doyle moves to Windlesham Manor, Crowborough, East Sussex

7–19 April 1909 – the Great Powers sign amendments to the Treaty of Berlin (of 1878) to settle the Bosnia Herzegovina crisis

24 June 1909 – Bram Stoker signs the contract for The Lady of the Shroud with William Heinemann

July 1909 – Bram Stoker published The Lady of the Shroud

1910
6 May 1910 – death of Edward VII

1911
1911 – Bram Stoker moves to No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico

3 March–12 June 1911 – Bram Stoker writes The Lair of the White Worm

November 1911 – Bram Stoker published The Lair of the White Worm

25 November 1911 – Laura Marx and her husband Paul Lafargue commit suicide

1912
14–15 April 1912 – night of the sinking of the RMS Titanic; Titanic sank at 2.20 am on 15 April

20 April 1912 – death of Bram Stoker at No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico, London

8 October 1912–30 May 1913 – First Balkan War between the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) and the Ottoman Empire

5 November 1912 – United States presidential election of 1912; the candidates were President William Howard Taft (Republican Party); Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive Party / “Bull Moose Party”); Woodrow Wilson (Democrat Party)

1913
29 June–10 August 1913 – Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Romania; it ends in defeat for Bulgaria

10 August 1913 – Treaty of Bucharest

1913–1914 – Roosevelt–Rondon-Cheerie-Jodi O’Rodio Scientific Expedition, led by Theodore Roosevelt and Cândido Rondon, to the Rio Roosevelt in a remote area of the Brazilian Amazon basin

1914
April 1914 – publication of the short story collection Dracula’s Guest; Florence moves to 4 Kinnerton Studios, Knightsbridge
British Prime Ministers
1868 (Feb–Dec.) – Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1868–1874 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1874–1880 – Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1880–1885 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1885–1886 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1886 (Feb.–July) – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1886–1892 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1892–1894 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1894–1895 – Archibald Philip Primrose, fifth earl of Rosebery (Liberal)
1895–1902 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1902–1905 – Arthur James Balfour (Conservative)
1905–1908 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal)